Noticias

Edward Lee

Edward Lee

Robert Lee, un hijo menor de Richard Lee y nieto de Sir Richard Lee, alcalde de Londres, nació alrededor de 1481. Un amigo de la familia, Sir Thomas More, recordó más tarde la promesa intelectual de Lee cuando era un escolar de diez años. Lee fue admitido en la Universidad de Oxford en 1495 y cinco años más tarde se convirtió en miembro del Magdalen College. En 1501 se trasladó a la Universidad de Cambridge. También pasó un tiempo estudiando en la Universidad de Lovaina. Según Claire Cross "en 1510, 1512 y 1513 adquirió prebendas en las catedrales de Salisbury, Lincoln y Winchester respectivamente". (1)

Lee tenía puntos de vista conservadores sobre la religión y en 1521 unió fuerzas con More, Thomas Wolsey y John Fisher para ayudar a Enrique VIII a escribir un libro. Afirmación de los siete sacramentos, que atacaba las enseñanzas de Martín Lutero. (2) Durante los años siguientes tuvo una disputa teológica de larga duración con Desiderius Erasmo, "quien se irritó tanto por la actitud de Lee hacia él que descartó al inglés como un joven agresivo que simplemente quería ser famoso". (3)

En 1531, Edward Lee fue nombrado arzobispo de York. Luego fue enviado a discutir el divorcio propuesto por el rey de Catalina de Aragón con el papa Clemente VII. El historiador, David Starkey, ha señalado que Enrique VIII consideraba a Lee como su principal experto legal. (4) En mayo de 1534, Lee y el obispo Cuthbert Tunstall fueron utilizados para tratar de persuadir a Catalina de que repudiara su matrimonio y para informarle de la nueva ley que limitaba la sucesión a los herederos de Enrique y Ana Bolena. (5) La obstinación de Catalina provocó que el rey ordenara su traslado al castillo de Kimbolton. (6)

En noviembre de 1534, el Parlamento aprobó la Ley de Supremacía. Esto le dio a Enrique VIII el título de "Jefe Supremo de la Iglesia de Inglaterra". También se aprobó una Ley de Traición que tipificaba como delito intentar por cualquier medio, incluso por escrito y hablado, acusar al Rey y sus herederos de herejía o tiranía. A todos los sujetos se les ordenó prestar juramento aceptando esto. (7)

Sir Thomas More y John Fisher, obispo de Rochester, se negaron a prestar juramento y fueron encarcelados en la Torre de Londres. Más fue convocado ante el arzobispo Thomas Cranmer y Thomas Cromwell en el Palacio de Lambeth. More estaba feliz de jurar que los hijos de Ana Bolena podrían suceder al trono, pero no podía declarar bajo juramento que todas las leyes anteriores del Parlamento habían sido válidas. No podía negar la autoridad del Papa "sin poner en peligro mi alma a la condenación perpetua". (8)

Se ha afirmado que el arzobispo Edward Lee tenía grandes dudas sobre las reformas religiosas del rey, pero aceptó prestar juramento. (9) Sin embargo, permaneció leal y predicó contra la supremacía papal en York Minister en 1535. (10) Sir Francis Bigod acusó al arzobispo de no predicar la supremacía real con suficiente fervor. Ese verano estuvo ocupado tratando de persuadir a los monjes de Yorkshire para que no se rebelaran contra el rey. Lee también cooperó con Thomas Cromwell en la aprobación del Acta de Represión, aceptó la entrega de las casas con un ingreso de menos de £ 200 al año. (11)

El 28 de septiembre de 1536, los comisionados del rey para la supresión de los monasterios llegaron para tomar posesión de la abadía de Hexham y expulsar a los monjes. Encontraron las puertas de la abadía cerradas y barricadas. "Un monje apareció en el techo de la abadía, vestido con armadura; dijo que había veinte hermanos en la abadía armados con pistolas y cañones, que morirían todos antes de que los comisionados se lo llevaran". Los comisionados se retiraron a Corbridge e informaron a Thomas Cromwell de lo sucedido. (12)

A esto le siguieron otros actos de rebelión contra la disolución de los monasterios. Un abogado, Robert Aske, finalmente se convirtió en líder de la rebelión en Yorkshire. La gente se unió a lo que se conoció como la Peregrinación de Gracia por una variedad de razones diferentes. Derek Wilson, autor de Un tapiz Tudor: hombres, mujeres y sociedad en la Inglaterra de la reforma (1972) ha argumentado: "Sería incorrecto ver la rebelión en Yorkshire, la llamada Peregrinación de Gracia, como pura y simplemente un aumento de piedad militante en nombre de la antigua religión. Impuestos impopulares, agravios locales y regionales, las malas cosechas, así como el ataque a los monasterios y la legislación de la Reforma, contribuyeron a la creación de una atmósfera tensa en muchas partes del país ". (13)

A los pocos días, 40.000 hombres se habían levantado en el East Riding y marchaban hacia York. (14) Aske pidió a sus hombres que juraran unirse a "nuestra Peregrinación de Gracia" para "la comunidad ... el mantenimiento de la fe de Dios y la Iglesia militante, la preservación de la persona y la descendencia del Rey, y la purificación de la nobleza de toda la sangre de los villanos y los malos consejeros, para la restitución de la Iglesia de Cristo y la supresión de las opiniones de los herejes ". (15) Aske publicó una declaración que obligaba a "todo hombre a ser fiel al linaje del rey ya la sangre noble, y preservar a la Iglesia de Dios de la corrupción". (dieciséis)

Temiendo por su vida, el arzobispo Lee huyó al castillo de Pontefract, donde recibió la protección de Thomas Darcy. (17) Robert Aske llegó al castillo el 20 de octubre. Después de un breve asedio, Darcy, que se quedó sin suministros, entregó el castillo. Richard Hoyle ha señalado: "Las acciones de Darcy son de hecho perfectamente plausibles cuando se toman al pie de la letra y especialmente cuando la Peregrinación de Gracia se considera un movimiento popular generalizado en oposición a las innovaciones religiosas esperadas y temidas. Cuando estallaron disturbios en Yorkshire, envió al rey una evaluación larga y precisa de la situación y solicitó refuerzos, dinero, suministros de municiones y la autoridad para movilizarse. En otras dos ocasiones escribió extensamente describiendo una situación en deterioro. En las tres ocasiones su información y consejos fueron ignorados ... Aske sostenía que Darcy no podría haber resistido un asedio, pero habría sido asesinado si los comunes hubieran asaltado el castillo ". (18)

Aske sabía que el arzobispo Lee tenía reputación de conservador y en el otoño de 1535 había escrito a Thomas Cromwell, quejándose de los nuevos predicadores radicales que estaban activos en la región. Continuó esto seis meses después con la sugerencia de que nadie debería poder predicar a menos que se le hubiera otorgado el permiso de Enrique VIII. Lee también se había quejado del plan de cerrar Hexham Abbey. (19) Aske y sus seguidores asumieron que el arzobispo simpatizaba con sus objetivos para la restauración de las libertades de la iglesia. (20)

El arzobispo Lee accedió a prestar juramento a los peregrinos. Incluía lo siguiente: "No entraréis en esta nuestra Peregrinación de Gracia por la Commonwealth, sino sólo por el amor que tenéis por el Dios Todopoderoso, su fe, y la Santa Iglesia militante y el mantenimiento de la misma, para la preservación de la persona del Rey y su descendencia, para la purificación de la nobleza, y para expulsar a toda sangre de villanos y consejeros malvados contra la Commonwealth de su Gracia y su Consejo Privado de la misma. Y no entraréis en nuestra Peregrinación sin ningún beneficio particular. a ustedes mismos, ni a desagradar a ningún particular, sino por consejo de la comunidad, ni matar ni asesinar sin envidia, sino que en sus corazones desechen todo temor y pavor, y tomen ante ustedes la Cruz de Cristo, y en vuestro corazón Su fe, la Restitución de la Iglesia, la supresión de estos herejes y sus opiniones, por todos los santos contenidos de este libro ". (21)

Robert Aske estaba convencido de que el arzobispo Lee apoyaba la Peregrinación de Gracia y se le permitió irse en libertad. Sin embargo, el 4 de diciembre de 1536 predicó un sermón en Pontefract Priory defendiendo la obediencia pasiva. (22) En marzo de 1537, Enrique VIII y Thomas Cromwell habían tomado el control de la situación y los líderes rebeldes fueron arrestados. Ese verano más de 200 fueron ejecutados. Esto incluyó a Robert Aske, Thomas Darcy, Francis Bigod, Robert Constable, John Bulmer, Margaret Cheyney y William Thirsk.

Aunque el arzobispo Lee había firmado el juramento, se le perdonó la vida. Como Jasper Ridley, el autor de Enrique VIII (1984) ha señalado: "Casi todos los nobles y caballeros de Yorkshire se habían unido a la Peregrinación de Gracia en el otoño. Henry no pudo ejecutarlos a todos. Los dividió, algo arbitrariamente, en dos grupos: los que iban a ser perdonados. y restaurados en el cargo y el favor, y los que iban a ser ejecutados por cargos fraudulentos de haber cometido nuevos actos de rebelión después del indulto general. Arzobispo Lee, Lord Scrope, Lord Latimer, Sir Robert Bowes, Sir Ralph Ellerker y Sir Marmaduke Constable continuó sirviendo como sirvientes leales de Henry ". (23)

El arzobispo Edward Lee continuó mostrando su lealtad a Enrique VIII después de la derrota de la Peregrinación de Gracia. Siguiendo el consejo de Thomas Cromwell, predicó varios sermones en Londres en apoyo de la supremacía real en el verano de 1537. También estuvo de acuerdo en que se debería permitir a los predicadores reformistas viajar libremente por el norte, algo de lo que se había quejado en 1535 (24). )

La vida para el arzobispo Lee se hizo más fácil después de que Thomas Howard, duque de Norfolk, el duque de Norfolk, presentó al Parlamento en mayo de 1539 el proyecto de ley de los Seis Artículos. Pronto quedó claro que contaba con el apoyo de Enrique VIII. Aunque no se usó la palabra "transubstanciación", se aprobó la presencia real del cuerpo y la sangre de Cristo en el pan y el vino. También lo era la idea del purgatorio. Los seis artículos presentaban un grave problema para los reformadores religiosos.

El obispo Hugh Latimer y el obispo Nicholas Shaxton hablaron en contra de los Seis Artículos en la Cámara de los Lores. Latimer había argumentado contra la transubstanciación y el purgatorio durante muchos años. Latimer ahora se enfrentaba a la elección entre obedecer al rey como jefe supremo de la iglesia y defender la doctrina en la que había tenido un papel clave en el desarrollo y la promoción durante la última década. (25) Thomas Cromwell no pudo acudir en su ayuda y en julio ambos se vieron obligados a renunciar a sus obispados. Durante un tiempo se pensó que Enrique ordenaría su ejecución como herejes. Finalmente, se decidió en contra de esta medida y, en cambio, se les ordenó que se retiraran de la predicación.

En julio de 1540, Lee se unió a sus compañeros obispos para anular el matrimonio de Enrique VIII y Ana de Cleves. Como su biógrafa, Claire Cross, ha señalado: "En el clima más conservador que prevaleció después de la aprobación de la Ley de los Seis Artículos y la caída de Cromwell, parecía algo menos asediado, aunque como alguien que se había puesto del lado de los rebeldes, el arzobispo todavía se enfrentaba a la indignidad de tener que buscar el perdón de su monarca de rodillas, cuando Enrique VIII visitó York a finales del verano de 1541 ". (26)

El arzobispo Edward Lee murió, a los sesenta y dos años, el 13 de septiembre de 1544.

El estallido de la Peregrinación de Gracia en Beverley a principios de octubre de 1536 hizo que la relación del arzobispo con el gobierno central fuera aún más precaria. Temiendo represalias de sus inquilinos agraviados, Lee huyó de Cawood a Pontefract, donde se convirtió en prisionero de los rebeldes cuando Lord Darcy entregó el castillo el 20 de octubre. Él y los otros caballeros allí prestaron el juramento de los peregrinos. No sin alguna justificación, Aske y sus seguidores asumieron que el arzobispo simpatizaba con sus objetivos de restaurar las libertades de la iglesia, pero Lee los decepcionó al predicar un sermón que abogaba por la obediencia pasiva en Pontefract Priory el 4 de diciembre. En enero de 1537, después de que Norfolk pusiera fin a la primera insurrección, Lee se atrevió a cuestionar la prudencia de intentar recolectar la décima parte clerical mientras el norte seguía siendo tan volátil. Durante el segundo levantamiento permaneció en su palacio en Cawood y al hacerlo contribuyó a la tranquilidad de las partes adyacentes del East Riding. Para defenderse de las acusaciones de traición tras el levantamiento, redactó un extenso relato exculpatorio de su participación en la peregrinación.

Casi todos los nobles y caballeros de Yorkshire se habían unido a la Peregrinación de Gracia en otoño. El arzobispo Lee, Lord Scrope, Lord Latimer, Sir Robert Bowes, Sir Ralph Ellerker y Sir Marmaduke Constable continuaron sirviendo como sirvientes leales de Henry; Darcy, Aske, Sir Robert Constable y Bigod iban a morir. También lo eran Sir John Bulmer y su amante, Margaret Cheyney, conocida como Lady Bulmer pero que no estaba legalmente casada con él. Henry había dado órdenes especiales para arrestar al hermano del conde de Northumberland, sir Thomas Percy, aunque a Northumberland, que se estaba muriendo de enfermedad, se le permitió pasar sus últimos días en libertad en su casa de Londres.

Enrique VIII (Respuesta al comentario)

Enrique VII: ¿un gobernante sabio o malvado? (Comentario de respuesta)

Hans Holbein y Enrique VIII (Respuesta al comentario)

El matrimonio del príncipe Arturo y Catalina de Aragón (Respuesta al comentario)

Enrique VIII y Ana de Cleves (Respuesta al comentario)

¿Fue la reina Catalina Howard culpable de traición? (Comentario de respuesta)

Anne Boleyn - Reformadora religiosa (Respuesta al comentario)

¿Ana Bolena tenía seis dedos en la mano derecha? Un estudio sobre propaganda católica (comentario de respuesta)

¿Por qué las mujeres fueron hostiles al matrimonio de Enrique VIII con Ana Bolena? (Comentario de respuesta)

Catherine Parr y los derechos de la mujer (comentario de respuesta)

Mujeres, política y Enrique VIII (Respuesta al comentario)

Cardenal Thomas Wolsey (Respuesta al comentario)

Historiadores y novelistas sobre Thomas Cromwell (Respuesta al comentario)

Martin Luther y Thomas Müntzer (Respuesta al comentario)

El antisemitismo de Martín Lutero y Hitler (comentario de respuesta)

Martín Lutero y la reforma (comentario de respuesta)

Mary Tudor y los herejes (comentario de respuesta)

Joan Bocher - Anabautista (Respuesta al comentario)

Anne Askew - Quemada en la hoguera (Respuesta al comentario)

Elizabeth Barton y Enrique VIII (Respuesta al comentario)

Ejecución de Margaret Cheyney (Respuesta al comentario)

Robert Aske (Respuesta al comentario)

Disolución de los monasterios (comentario de respuesta)

Peregrinación de gracia (comentario de respuesta)

Pobreza en la Inglaterra Tudor (Respuesta al comentario)

¿Por qué la reina Isabel no se casó? (Comentario de respuesta)

Francis Walsingham - Códigos y descifrado de códigos (comentario de respuesta)

Códigos y descifrado de códigos (comentario de respuesta)

Sir Thomas More: ¿Santo o pecador? (Comentario de respuesta)

El arte y la propaganda religiosa de Hans Holbein (Respuesta al comentario)

Revueltas del Primero de Mayo de 1517: ¿Cómo saben los historiadores lo que sucedió? (Comentario de respuesta)

(1) Claire Cross, Edward Lee: Diccionario Oxford de biografía nacional (2004-2014)

(2) Jasper Ridley, Enrique VIII (1984) página 127

(3) Geoffrey Moorhouse, La peregrinación de la gracia (2002) página 80

(4) David Starkey, Seis esposas: las reinas de Enrique VIII (2003) página 231

(5) Claire Cross, Edward Lee: Diccionario Oxford de biografía nacional (2004-2014)

(6) Alison Weir, Las seis esposas de Enrique VIII (2007) página 269

(7) Roger Lockyer, Tudor y Stuart Gran Bretaña (1985) páginas 43-44

(8) Peter Ackroyd, Tudor (2012) página 82

(9) Antonia Fraser, Las seis esposas de Enrique VIII (1992) página 333

(10) Geoffrey Moorhouse, La peregrinación de la gracia (2002) página 80

(11) Claire Cross, Edward Lee: Diccionario Oxford de biografía nacional (2004-2014)

(12) Jasper Ridley, Enrique VIII (1984) página 285

(13) Derek Wilson, Un tapiz Tudor: hombres, mujeres y sociedad en la Inglaterra de la reforma (1972) página 59

(14) Anthony Fletcher, Rebeliones Tudor (1974) página 26

(15) Jasper Ridley, Enrique VIII (1984) página 287

(16) Peter Ackroyd, Tudor (2012) página 109

(17) Claire Cross, Edward Lee: Diccionario Oxford de biografía nacional (2004-2014)

(18) Richard Hoyle, Thomas Darcy: Diccionario Oxford de biografía nacional (2004-2014)

(19) Geoffrey Moorhouse, La peregrinación de la gracia (2002) páginas 80-81

(20) Claire Cross, Edward Lee: Diccionario Oxford de biografía nacional (2004-2014)

(21) Robert Aske, Juramento de la peregrinación de gracia (octubre de 1536)

(22) Claire Cross, Edward Lee: Diccionario Oxford de biografía nacional (2004-2014)

(23) Jasper Ridley, Enrique VIII (1984) página 295

(24) Claire Cross, Edward Lee: Diccionario Oxford de biografía nacional (2004-2014)

(25) Susan Wabuda, Hugh Latimer: Diccionario Oxford de biografía nacional (2004-2014)


Lee, Robert E. 1807-1870

Robert Edward Lee fue el general más famoso de las fuerzas confederadas durante la Guerra Civil estadounidense (1861 & # x2013 1865). Lee sirvió como comandante del Ejército de Virginia del Norte y, finalmente, como general en jefe de todo el Ejército Confederado hasta la finalización de la guerra en 1865.

Lee nació el 19 de enero de 1807 en el condado de Westmoreland, Virginia. Su padre, a quien apenas conocía, era el famoso héroe de la Guerra Revolucionaria, Henry & # x201C Light Horse Harry & # x201D Lee (1756 & # x2013 1818). En 1829, Robert E. Lee se graduó segundo de su clase sin un solo demérito en la Academia Militar de los Estados Unidos en West Point, Nueva York. En 1831 Lee se casó con Mary Custis (1808 & # x2013 1873), bisnieta de Martha Washington (1731 & # x2013 1802). Juntos tuvieron siete hijos.

Durante la Guerra Mexicana (1846 & # x2013 1848), Lee sirvió en el estado mayor del general Winfield Scott (1786 & # x2013 1866). Como ingeniero, Lee dirigió la colocación y transporte de artillería pesada en el desembarco de Veracruz y posterior marcha a la Ciudad de México en 1847. En 1852 se convirtió en superintendente de West Point. En 1859 comandó una fuerza de infantes de marina que, junto con la milicia local, sofocó la incursión de John Brown en la armería de Harpers Ferry (1800 & # x2013 1859).

Lee dirigió el Departamento de Texas desde 1860 hasta marzo de 1861. En abril, en Washington, DC, le ofrecieron y luego declinó el mando del Ejército de la Unión (Norte). En un mes, se había unido al Ejército Confederado. En 1862 asumió el mando del Ejército de Virginia del Norte, llevando a las fuerzas confederadas a victorias decisivas en batallas como Second Bull Run (agosto de 1862), Fredericksburg (diciembre de 1862) y Chancellorsville (mayo de 1863). Él y su ejército sufrieron una aplastante derrota en la Batalla de Gettysburg en julio de 1863, posiblemente el punto de inflexión de la Guerra Civil estadounidense. Poco después de la derrota en Petersburg, Lee entregó las fuerzas confederadas al general de la Unión Ulysses S. Grant (1822 & # x2013 1885) el 9 de abril de 1865, en Appomattox Courthouse en la zona rural de Virginia.

Después de la guerra, Lee se desempeñó como presidente del Washington College (más tarde rebautizado como Washington and Lee College) en Lexington, Virginia. Murió de neumonía el 12 de octubre de 1870 y fue enterrado debajo de la capilla del Washington College.


Edward Lee Wiki, biografía, patrimonio neto, edad, familia, hechos y más

Encontrarás toda la información básica sobre Edward Lee. Desplácese hacia abajo para obtener los detalles completos. Te explicamos todo sobre Edward. Checkout Edward Wiki Edad, biografía, carrera, altura, peso, familia. Manténgase actualizado con nosotros sobre sus celebridades favoritas. Actualizamos nuestros datos de vez en cuando.

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BIOGRAFÍA

Chef famoso y ganador del Iron Chef America de Food Network. También fue uno de los favoritos en la novena temporada de Top Chef: Texas y apareció en la tercera temporada del programa de PBS The Mind of a Chef. También es dueño de los restaurantes 610 Magnolia, Milkweed y Succotash. Edward Lee es un chef muy conocido. Edward nació el 2 de julio de 1972 en Brooklyn, NY ..Eduardo es una de las celebridades famosas y de moda que es popular por ser chef. A partir de 2018, Edward Lee tiene 46 años. Edward Lee es miembro de famosos Cocinero lista.

Wikifamouspeople ha clasificado a Edward Lee en la lista de celebridades populares. Edward Lee también figura en la lista junto con las personas nacidas el 2 de julio de 72. Una de las celebridades preciosas que figuran en la lista de chefs.

No se sabe mucho sobre los antecedentes educativos y la infancia de Edward. Lo actualizaremos pronto.

Detalles
Nombre Edward Lee
Edad (a partir de 2018) 46 años
Profesión Cocinero
Fecha de nacimiento 2-julio-72
Lugar de nacimiento Brooklyn, Nueva York
Nacionalidad Brooklyn

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Valor neto de Edward Lee

La principal fuente de ingresos de Edward es Chef. Actualmente no tenemos suficiente información sobre su familia, relaciones, infancia, etc. Actualizaremos pronto.

Valor neto estimado en 2019: $ 100K- $ 1M (Aprox.)

Edward Edad, altura y peso

Las medidas del cuerpo de Edward, la altura y el peso aún no se conocen, pero las actualizaremos pronto.

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Relaciones familiares y de amplificador

No se sabe mucho sobre la familia y las relaciones de Edward. Se oculta toda la información sobre su vida privada. Lo actualizaremos pronto.

Hechos

  • Edward Lee tiene 46 años. a partir de 2018
  • El cumpleaños de Edward es el 2 de julio del 72.
  • Signo del zodíaco: Cáncer.

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Contenido

Richard Lee afirmó descender de Lees of Shropshire y lucía un escudo de armas que fue confirmado en 1660/1 por John Gibbon, Bluemantle Pursuivant del College of Arms. En 1988, se publicó un estudio de William Thorndal en la Sociedad Nacional Genealógica trimestral, [1] demostrando que Richard Lee I era en realidad el hijo de John Lee, un diseñador de ropa, y su esposa Jane Hancock que Richard había nacido no en Coton Hall en Shropshire, pero en Worcester (a cierta distancia del río Severn) y que varios de sus parientes inmediatos habían sido aprendices de viticultores. La pregunta, entonces, ha sido '¿cómo desciende Richard Lee de la familia con la que compartía un escudo de armas?' El libro Colecciones para la ascendencia del coronel Richard Lee, emigrante de Virginia, por el genealogista inglés Alan Nicholls [2] presentó evidencia de la ascendencia inglesa del coronel Richard Lee utilizando documentos contemporáneos, transcribiendo registros dejados por Richard Lee, su familia y sus asociados. También analiza los registros que dejaron las familias Shropshire y Worcester Lee. Estos datos y hallazgos adicionales relacionados demuestran que los antepasados ​​Marson de Richard Lee, los comerciantes y comerciantes más ricos de Worcester, probablemente fueron la causa de la vida de su abuelo y su padre en Worcester. Un tío abuelo, Richard Lee, era probablemente el hombre del mismo nombre, llamado 'Richard Lee, Gent' enterrado en la parroquia Alveley de Coton Hall en 1613. [3] [4]

Colonial Virginia Modificar

En los Estados Unidos, la familia comenzó cuando Richard Lee I emigró a Virginia e hizo fortuna con el tabaco. Su hijo Richard Lee II se casó con Laetitia Corbin, hija de The Hon. Henry Corbin (colono) del condado de Rappahannock, fue miembro de la Casa de los Burgueses y más tarde del Consejo del Rey. Su hijo, Richard Lee III, era un comerciante de algodón en Londres para la familia y arrendó a sus hermanos Thomas y Henry la plantación que heredó de su padre, "Machodoc", por "un alquiler anual de solo un grano de pimienta, pagadero el día de Navidad. ". Los Lee adquirieron un significado más amplio por primera vez con el mencionado Thomas Lee (1690-1750). Se convirtió en miembro de la Casa de los Burgueses y luego fundó la Compañía de Ohio, y fue el co-ejecutor de la propiedad de su tío, John Tayloe I, lo que se convirtió en Mount Airy.

Era de la Guerra Revolucionaria Editar

Thomas Lee [5] (1690-1750) se casó con Hannah Harrison Ludwell: [6] sus hijos, como los descendientes del hermano de Thomas Lee, Henry Lee I (1691-1747), incluyeron varias figuras políticas prominentes de la Guerra Revolucionaria y de la época anterior a la Revolución. .

Los dos hijos mayores de Thomas y Hannah Lee fueron Philip Ludwell Lee (1726-1775) y Hannah Lee (1728-1782).

Thomas Ludwell Lee (1730-1778) fue miembro de los Delegados de Virginia y editor importante de la Declaración de Derechos de Virginia de George Mason (1776), un precursor de la Declaración de Independencia de los Estados Unidos, que fue firmada por sus hermanos Richard Henry Lee ( 1732-1794) y Francis Lightfoot Lee (1734-1797).

Richard Henry Lee fue un delegado al Congreso Continental de Virginia y presidente de ese organismo en 1774, luego se desempeñó como presidente del Congreso Continental según los Artículos de la Confederación, y Senador de los Estados Unidos por Virginia (1789-1792) según la nueva Constitución de los Estados Unidos. .

Los hermanos menores incluyeron a Alice Lee (1736–1818), quien se casó con el médico jefe estadounidense William Shippen, Jr. [7] y los diplomáticos William Lee (n. 1739, m. 1795) y Arthur Lee (n. 1740, d. 1792).

El nieto de Henry Lee, Henry Lee III (1756-1818), conocido como "Light Horse Harry", era un graduado de Princeton que sirvió con gran distinción bajo el mando del general George Washington en la Guerra de Independencia de los Estados Unidos y fue el único oficial por debajo del rango de general. para recibir la "Medalla de oro", otorgada por su liderazgo en la batalla de Paulus Hook en Nueva Jersey, el 19 de agosto de 1779. Fue gobernador de Virginia de 1791 a 1794. Entre sus seis hijos estaba Robert Edward Lee, más tarde el famoso general confederado durante la Guerra Civil estadounidense.

Los hermanos de Henry Lee III fueron el célebre Richard Bland Lee, congresista estadounidense de Virginia durante tres períodos, y Charles Lee (1758–1815), Fiscal General de los Estados Unidos de 1795–1801.

Thomas Sim Lee, primo segundo de Henry Lee III, fue elegido gobernador de Maryland en 1779 y 1792 y declinó un tercer mandato en 1798. Jugó un papel importante en el nacimiento de Maryland como estado y en el nacimiento de los Estados Unidos de América como nación. Un nieto de Thomas Sim Lee fue John Lee Carroll, el 37º gobernador de Maryland.

Era de la Guerra Civil Editar

Robert E. Lee (1807–1870), era hijo de Henry Lee III y probablemente el miembro más famoso de la familia Lee. Se desempeñó como general confederado en la Guerra Civil de los Estados Unidos y más tarde como presidente de la Universidad de Washington y Lee, que fue nombrada por él y por George Washington. Washington and Lee University alberga Lee Chapel, lugar de enterramiento de varios miembros de la familia Lee. Stratford Hall, una propiedad de la familia Lee y lugar de nacimiento de Robert E. Lee, alberga el Archivo Digital de la Familia Lee. Estaba casado con Mary Anna Randolph Custis, [8] que era nieta de Martha Washington y también era prima tercera de Lee una vez removida a través de Richard Lee II, prima cuarta a través de William Randolph, y prima tercera a través de Robert Carter IRE Los hijos de Lee eran George Washington Custis Lee, Mary Custis Lee, Robert E. Lee Jr., Anne Carter Lee, Mildred Childe Lee, Eleanor Agnes Lee y William H. Fitzhugh Lee.

Otros parientes de Lee que fueron Oficiales Generales durante la Guerra Civil fueron Fitzhugh Lee (C.S.A.), Samuel Phillips Lee (Marina de los EE. UU.) Richard Lucian Page (Estados Confederados y Marina) Edwin Gray Lee (C.S.A.) y Richard L. T. Beale (C.S.A.). Las relaciones indirectas de R.E.Lee que eran oficiales generales confederados incluyeron a William N. Pendleton y al graduado del Instituto Militar de Virginia William H. F. Payne. [9] Otros dos generales de la guerra civil que estaban relacionados con Lee eran George B. Crittenden (CSA) y Thomas Leonidas Crittenden (EE. UU.). Su hermana era la autora Ann Mary Butler Crittenden Coleman y su madre era Sarah O. Lee, una gran-gran -nieta de Richard Lee I "el Fundador". Un hijo de Thomas L. Crittenden, John Jordan Crittenden III, murió en la batalla de Little Bighorn en 1876. Otro pariente lejano de Lee fue el almirante estadounidense Willis A. Lee de Kentucky.

"Bedford", el hogar del condado de Jefferson de su primo Edmund J. Lee Jr. (1797-1877), hijo de Edmund Jennings Lee I, fue quemado en julio de 1864, junto con otros simpatizantes confederados en lo que se convirtió en el Panhandle Oriental de West Virginia. [10]

Generaciones posteriores Editar

Francis Preston Blair Lee (1857-1944) fue un miembro demócrata del Senado de los Estados Unidos, que representó al estado de Maryland de 1914 a 1917. También fue bisnieto del patriota estadounidense Richard Henry Lee, padre de E. Brooke Lee, contralor de Maryland y "padre de Silver Spring" y abuelo de Blair Lee III, vicegobernador de Maryland de 1971 a 1979 y gobernador interino de Maryland. desde 1977 hasta 1979. [11]

El juez Charles Carter Lee, descendiente directo de Henry Lee III (Lighthorse Harry), fue seleccionado para representar a los Estados Unidos en los Juegos Olímpicos de 2008 como Jefe de Misión del Comité Olímpico de los Estados Unidos. El juez Lee, juez del Tribunal Superior del condado de Los Ángeles desde 1989, también participó en los Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1984 mientras encabezaba una delegación enviada a China después de que la Unión Soviética anunciara un plan para boicotear los Juegos Olímpicos de Los Ángeles. Estas conversaciones concluyeron con el acuerdo formal de China por escrito para participar en los Juegos Olímpicos de 1984. La madre de Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis nació como Janet Lee y afirmó ser parte de la familia. Más tarde se comprobó que no lo era. [ cita necesaria ]

A continuación se muestra una lista de miembros masculinos notables de la familia Lee, comenzando con el gobernador de Virginia Thomas Lee y Henry Lee: [ ¿investigacion original? ]


Entendiendo a Robert E. Lee

Pocas figuras en la historia de Estados Unidos son más divisivas, contradictorias o esquivas que Robert E. Lee, el trágico y reacio líder del Ejército Confederado, que murió en su amada Virginia a los 63 años en 1870, cinco años después del final de la Guerra Civil. En una nueva biografía, Robert E. Lee, Roy Blount, Jr., trata a Lee como un hombre de impulsos en competencia, un & # 8220 parangón de virilidad & # 8221 y & # 8220 uno de los mayores comandantes militares de la historia, & # 8221 que, sin embargo & # 8220, no era bueno para decirle a los hombres lo que que hacer. & # 8221

Blount, un célebre humorista, periodista, dramaturgo y narrador, es autor o coautor de 15 libros anteriores y editor de Roy Blount & # 8217s Libro de humor sureño. Residente de la ciudad de Nueva York y el oeste de Massachusetts, su interés por Lee se remonta a su infancia en Georgia. Aunque Blount nunca fue un aficionado a la Guerra Civil, dice & # 8220todo sureño tiene que hacer las paces con esa guerra. Me sumergí de nuevo en él para este libro y me siento aliviado de haber salido con vida. & # 8221

& # 8220Además, & # 8221 dice, & # 8220Lee me recuerda de alguna manera a mi padre. & # 8221

En el corazón de la historia de Lee se encuentra una de las decisiones monumentales en la historia de Estados Unidos: venerado por su honor, Lee renunció a su comisión del ejército de los EE. UU. Para defender Virginia y luchar por la Confederación, del lado de la esclavitud. & # 8220La decisión fue honorable según sus estándares de honor & # 8212 que, independientemente de lo que pensemos de ellos, no fueron ni egoístas ni complicados & # 8221 Blount. Lee & # 8220 pensó que era una mala idea que Virginia se separara, y Dios sabe que tenía razón, pero la secesión se había decidido más o menos democráticamente. & # 8221 Lee & # 8217s familia tenía esclavos, y él mismo era, en el mejor de los casos, ambiguo sobre el tema, lo que llevó a algunos de sus defensores a lo largo de los años a descartar la importancia de la esclavitud en las evaluaciones de su carácter. Blount sostiene que la cuestión sí importa: & # 8220 para mí & # 8217s la esclavitud, mucho más que la secesión como tal, arroja una sombra sobre la honorabilidad de Lee & # 8217. & # 8221

En el extracto que sigue, el general reúne a sus tropas para una batalla durante tres húmedos días de julio en una ciudad de Pensilvania. A partir de entonces, su nombre resonaría con coraje, bajas y errores de cálculo: Gettysburg.

En su apuesto (aunque a veces depresivo) mejor momento antes de la guerra, pudo haber sido la persona más bella de Estados Unidos, una especie de cruce precursor entre Cary Grant y Randolph Scott. Estaba en su elemento cotilleando con bellezas sobre sus novios en los bailes. En los teatros de la matanza humana infernal, tenía una gallina mascota como compañía. He had tiny feet that he loved his children to tickle None of these things seems to fit, for if ever there was a grave American icon, it is Robert Edward Lee—hero of the Confederacy in the Civil War and a symbol of nobility to some, of slavery to others.

After Lee’s death in 1870, Frederick Douglass, the former fugitive slave who had become the nation’s most prominent African-American, wrote, “We can scarcely take up a newspaper . . . that is not filled with nauseating flatteries” of Lee, from which “it would seem . . . that the soldier who kills the most men in battle, even in a bad cause, is the greatest Christian, and entitled to the highest place in heaven.” Two years later one of Lee’s ex-generals, Jubal A. Early, apotheosized his late commander as follows: “Our beloved Chief stands, like some lofty column which rears its head among the highest, in grandeur, simple, pure and sublime.”

In 1907, on the 100th anniversary of Lee’s birth, President Theodore Roosevelt expressed mainstream American sentiment, praising Lee’s “extraordinary skill as a General, his dauntless courage and high leadership,” adding, “He stood that hardest of all strains, the strain of bearing himself well through the gray evening of failure and therefore out of what seemed failure he helped to build the wonderful and mighty triumph of our national life, in which all his countrymen, north and south, share.”

We may think we know Lee because we have a mental image: gray. Not only the uniform, the mythic horse, the hair and beard, but the resignation with which he accepted dreary burdens that offered “neither pleasure nor advantage”: in particular, the Confederacy, a cause of which he took a dim view until he went to war for it. He did not see right and wrong in tones of gray, and yet his moralizing could generate a fog, as in a letter from the front to his invalid wife: “You must endeavour to enjoy the pleasure of doing good. That is all that makes life valuable.” All right. But then he adds: “When I measure my own by that standard I am filled with confusion and despair.”

His own hand probably never drew human blood nor fired a shot in anger, and his only Civil War wound was a faint scratch on the cheek from a sharpshooter’s bullet, but many thousands of men died quite horribly in battles where he was the dominant spirit, and most of the casualties were on the other side. If we take as a given Lee’s granitic conviction that everything is God’s will, however, he was born to lose.

As battlefield generals go, he could be extremely fiery, and could go out of his way to be kind. But in even the most sympathetic versions of his life story he comes across as a bit of a stick—certainly compared with his scruffy nemesis, Ulysses S. Grant his zany, ferocious “right arm,” Stonewall Jackson and the dashing “eyes” of his army, J.E.B. “Jeb” Stuart. For these men, the Civil War was just the ticket. Lee, however, has come down in history as too fine for the bloodbath of 1861-65. To efface the squalor and horror of the war, we have the image of Abraham Lincoln freeing the slaves, and we have the image of Robert E. Lee’s gracious surrender. Still, for many contemporary Americans, Lee is at best the moral equivalent of Hitler’s brilliant field marshal Erwin Rommel (who, however, turned against Hitler, as Lee never did against Jefferson Davis, who, to be sure, was no Hitler).

On his father’s side, Lee’s family was among Virginia’s and therefore the nation’s most distinguished. Henry, the scion who was to become known in the Revolutionary War as Light-Horse Harry, was born in 1756. He graduated from Princeton at 19 and joined the Continental Army at 20 as a captain of dragoons, and he rose in rank and independence to command Lee’s light cavalry and then Lee’s legion of cavalry and infantry. Without the medicines, elixirs, and food Harry Lee’s raiders captured from the enemy, George Washington’s army would not likely have survived the harrowing winter encampment of 1777-78 at Valley Forge. Washington became his patron and close friend. With the war nearly over, however, Harry decided he was underappreciated, so he impulsively resigned from the army. In 1785, he was elected to the Continental Congress, and in 1791 he was elected governor of Virginia. In 1794 Washington put him in command of the troops that bloodlessly put down the Whiskey Rebellion in western Pennsylvania. In 1799 he was elected to the U.S. Congress, where he famously eulogized Washington as “first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen.”

Meanwhile, though, Harry’s fast and loose speculation in hundreds of thousands of the new nation’s acres went sour, and in 1808 he was reduced to chicanery. He and his second wife, Ann Hill Carter Lee, and their children departed the Lee ancestral home, where Robert was born, for a smaller rented house in Alexandria. Under the conditions of bankruptcy that obtained in those days, Harry was still liable for his debts. He jumped a personal appearance bail—to the dismay of his brother, Edmund, who had posted a sizable bond—and wangled passage, with pitying help from President James Monroe, to the West Indies. In 1818, after five years away, Harry headed home to die, but got only as far as Cumberland Island, Georgia, where he was buried. Robert was 11.

Robert appears to have been too fine for his childhood, for his education, for his profession, for his marriage, and for the Confederacy. Not according to him. According to him, he was not fine enough. For all his audacity on the battlefield, he accepted rather passively one raw deal after another, bending over backward for everyone from Jefferson Davis to James McNeill Whistler’s mother. (When he was superintendent of the U.S. Military Academy, Lee acquiesced to Mrs. Whistler’s request on behalf of her cadet son, who was eventually dismissed in 1854.)

By what can we know of him? The works of a general are battles, campaigns and usually memoirs. The engagements of the Civil War shape up more as bloody muddles than as commanders’ chess games. For a long time during the war, “Old Bobbie Lee,” as he was referred to worshipfully by his troops and nervously by the foe, had the greatly superior Union forces spooked, but a century and a third of analysis and counteranalysis has resulted in no core consensus as to the genius or the folly of his generalship. And he wrote no memoir. He wrote personal letters—a discordant mix of flirtation, joshing, lyrical touches, and stern religious adjuration—and he wrote official dispatches that are so impersonal and (generally) unselfserving as to seem above the fray.

During the postbellum century, when Americans North and South decided to embrace R. E. Lee as a national as well as a Southern hero, he was generally described as antislavery. This assumption rests not on any public position he took but on a passage in an 1856 letter to his wife. The passage begins: “In this enlightened age, there are few I believe, but what will acknowledge, that slavery as an institution, is a moral & political evil in any Country. It is useless to expatiate on its disadvantages.” But he goes on: “I think it however a greater evil to the white than to the black race, & while my feelings are strongly enlisted in behalf of the latter, my sympathies are more strong for the former. The blacks are immeasurably better off here than in Africa, morally, socially & physically. The painful discipline they are undergoing, is necessary for their instruction as a race, & I hope will prepare & lead them to better things. How long their subjugation may be necessary is known & ordered by a wise Merciful Providence.”

The only way to get inside Lee, perhaps, is by edging fractally around the record of his life to find spots where he comes through by holding up next to him some of the fully realized characters—Grant, Jackson, Stuart, Light-Horse Harry Lee, John Brown—with whom he interacted and by subjecting to contemporary skepticism certain concepts—honor, “gradual emancipation,” divine will—upon which he unreflectively founded his identity.

He wasn’t always gray. Until war aged him dramatically, his sharp dark brown eyes were complemented by black hair (“ebon and abundant,” as his doting biographer Douglas Southall Freeman puts it, “with a wave that a woman might have envied”), a robust black mustache, a strong full mouth and chin unobscured by any beard, and dark mercurial brows. He was not one to hide his looks under a bushel. His heart, on the other hand . . . “The heart, he kept locked away,” as Stephen Vincent Benét proclaimed in “John Brown’s Body,” “from all the picklocks of biographers.” Accounts by people who knew him give the impression that no one knew his whole heart, even before it was broken by the war. Perhaps it broke many years before the war. “You know she is like her papa, always wanting something,” he wrote about one of his daughters. The great Southern diarist of his day, Mary Chesnut, tells us that when a lady teased him about his ambitions, he “remonstrated—said his tastes were of the simplest. He only wanted a Virginia farm—no end of cream and fresh butter—and fried chicken. Not one fried chicken or two—but unlimited fried chicken.” Just before Lee’s surrender at Appomattox, one of his nephews found him in the field, “very grave and tired,” carrying around a fried chicken leg wrapped in a piece of bread, which a Virginia countrywoman had pressed upon him but for which he couldn’t muster any hunger.

One thing that clearly drove him was devotion to his home state. “If Virginia stands by the old Union,” Lee told a friend, “so will I. But if she secedes (though I do not believe in secession as a constitutional right, nor that there is sufficient cause for revolution), then I will follow my native State with my sword, and, if need be, with my life.”

The North took secession as an act of aggression, to be countered accordingly. When Lincoln called on the loyal states for troops to invade the South, Southerners could see the issue as defense not of slavery but of homeland. A Virginia convention that had voted 2 to 1 against secession, now voted 2 to 1 in favor.

When Lee read the news that Virginia had joined the Confederacy, he said to his wife, “Well, Mary, the question is settled,” and resigned the U.S. Army commission he had held for 32 years.

The days of July 1-3, 1863, still stand among the most horrific and formative in American history. Lincoln had given up on Joe Hooker, put Maj. Gen. George G. Meade in command of the Army of the Potomac, and sent him to stop Lee’s invasion of Pennsylvania. Since Jeb Stuart’s scouting operation had been uncharacteristically out of touch, Lee wasn’t sure where Meade’s army was. Lee had actually advanced farther north than the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, when he learned that Meade was south of him, threatening his supply lines. So Lee swung back in that direction. On June 30 a Confederate brigade, pursuing the report that there were shoes to be had in Gettysburg, ran into Federal cavalry west of town, and withdrew. On July 1 a larger Confederate force returned, engaged Meade’s advance force, and pushed it back through the town—to the fishhook-shaped heights comprising Cemetery Hill, Cemetery Ridge, Little Round Top, and Round Top. It was almost a rout, until Maj. Gen. O. O. Howard, to whom Lee as West Point superintendent had been kind when Howard was an unpopular cadet, and Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock rallied the Federals and held the high ground. Excellent ground to defend from. That evening Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, who commanded the First Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia, urged Lee not to attack, but to swing around to the south, get between Meade and Washington, and find a strategically even better defensive position, against which the Federals might feel obliged to mount one of those frontal assaults that virtually always lost in this war. Still not having heard from Stuart, Lee felt he might have numerical superiority for once. “No,” he said, “the enemy is there, and I am going to attack him there.”

The next morning, Lee set in motion a two-part offensive: Lt. Gen. Richard Ewell’s corps was to pin down the enemy’s right flank, on Culp’s Hill and Cemetery Hill, while Longstreet’s, with a couple of extra divisions, would hit the left flank—believed to be exposed—on Cemetery Ridge. To get there Longstreet would have to make a long march under cover. Longstreet mounted a sulky objection, but Lee was adamant. And wrong.

Lee didn’t know that in the night Meade had managed by forced marches to concentrate nearly his entire army at Lee’s front, and had deployed it skillfully—his left flank was now extended to Little Round Top, nearly three-quarters of a mile south of where Lee thought it was. The disgruntled Longstreet, never one to rush into anything, and confused to find the left flank farther left than expected, didn’t begin his assault until 3:30 that afternoon. It nearly prevailed anyway, but at last was beaten gorily back. Although the two-pronged offensive was ill-coordinated, and the Federal artillery had knocked out the Confederate guns to the north before Ewell attacked, Ewell’s infantry came tantalizingly close to taking Cemetery Hill, but a counterattack forced them to retreat.

On the third morning, July 3, Lee’s plan was roughly the same, but Meade seized the initiative by pushing forward on his right and seizing Culp’s Hill, which the Confederates held. So Lee was forced to improvise. He decided to strike straight ahead, at Meade’s heavily fortified midsection. Confederate artillery would soften it up, and Longstreet would direct a frontal assault across a mile of open ground against the center of Missionary Ridge. Again Longstreet objected again Lee wouldn’t listen. The Confederate artillery exhausted all its shells ineffectively, so was unable to support the assault—which has gone down in history as Pickett’s charge because Maj. Gen. George Pickett’s division absorbed the worst of the horrible bloodbath it turned into.

Lee’s idolaters strained after the war to shift the blame, but the consensus today is that Lee managed the battle badly. Each supposed major blunder of his subordinates—Ewell’s failure to take the high ground of Cemetery Hill on July 1, Stuart’s getting out of touch and leaving Lee unapprised of what force he was facing, and the lateness of Longstreet’s attack on the second day—either wasn’t a blunder at all (if Longstreet had attacked earlier he would have encountered an even stronger Union position) or was caused by a lack of forcefulness and specificity in Lee’s orders.

Before Gettysburg, Lee had seemed not only to read the minds of Union generals but almost to expect his subordinates to read his. He was not in fact good at telling men what to do. That no doubt suited the Confederate fighting man, who didn’t take kindly to being told what to do—but Lee’s only weakness as a commander, his otherwise reverent nephew Fitzhugh Lee would write, was his “reluctance to oppose the wishes of others, or to order them to do anything that would be disagreeable and to which they would not consent.” With men as well as with women, his authority derived from his sightliness, politeness, and unimpeachability. His usually cheerful detachment patently covered solemn depths, depths faintly lit by glints of previous and potential rejection of self and others. It all seemed Olympian, in a Christian cavalier sort of way. Officers’ hearts went out to him across the latitude he granted them to be willingly, creatively honorable. Longstreet speaks of responding to Lee at another critical moment by “receiving his anxious expressions really as appeals for reinforcement of his unexpressed wish.” When people obey you because they think you enable them to follow their own instincts, you need a keen instinct yourself for when they’re getting out of touch, as Stuart did, and when they are balking for good reason, as Longstreet did. As a father Lee was fond but fretful, as a husband devoted but distant. As an attacking general he was inspiring but not necessarily cogent.

At Gettysburg he was jittery, snappish. He was 56 and bone weary. He may have had dysentery, though a scholar’s widely publicized assertion to that effect rests on tenuous evidence. He did have rheumatism and heart trouble. He kept fretfully wondering why Stuart was out of touch, worrying that something bad had happened to him. He had given Stuart broad discretion as usual, and Stuart had overextended himself. Stuart wasn’t frolicking. He had done his best to act on Lee’s written instructions: “You will . . . be able to judge whether you can pass around their army without hindrance, doing them all the damage you can, and cross the [Potomac] east of the mountains. In either case, after crossing the river, you must move on and feel the right of Ewell’s troops, collecting information, provisions, etc.” But he had not, in fact, been able to judge: he met several hindrances in the form of Union troops, a swollen river that he and his men managed only heroically to cross, and 150 Federal wagons that he captured antes de he crossed the river. And he had not sent word of what he was up to.

When on the afternoon of the second day Stuart did show up at Gettysburg, after pushing himself nearly to exhaustion, Lee’s only greeting to him is said to have been, “Well, General Stuart, you are here at last.” A coolly devastating cut: Lee’s way of chewing out someone who he felt had let him down. In the months after Gettysburg, as Lee stewed over his defeat, he repeatedly criticized the laxness of Stuart’s command, deeply hurting a man who prided himself on the sort of dashing freelance effectiveness by which Lee’s father, Maj. Gen. Light-Horse Harry, had defined himself. A bond of implicit trust had been broken. Loving-son figure had failed loving-father figure and vice versa.

In the past Lee had also granted Ewell and Longstreet wide discretion, and it had paid off. Maybe his magic in Virginia didn’t travel. “The whole affair was disjointed,” Taylor the aide said of Gettysburg. “There was an utter absence of accord in the movements of the several commands.”

Why did Lee stake everything, finally, on an ill-considered thrust straight up the middle? Lee’s critics have never come up with a logical explanation. Evidently he just got his blood up, as the expression goes. When the usually repressed Lee felt an overpowering need for emotional release, and had an army at his disposal and another one in front of him, he couldn’t hold back. And why should Lee expect his imprudence to be any less unsettling to Meade than it had been to the other Union commanders?

The spot against which he hurled Pickett was right in front of Meade’s headquarters. (Once, Dwight Eisenhower, who admired Lee’s generalship, took Field Marshal Montgomery to visit the Gettysburg battlefield. They looked at the site of Pickett’s charge and were baffled. Eisenhower said, “The man [Lee] must have got so mad that he wanted to hit that guy [Meade] with a brick.”)

Pickett’s troops advanced with precision, closed up the gaps that withering fire tore into their smartly dressed ranks, and at close quarters fought tooth and nail. Acouple of hundred Confederates did break the Union line, but only briefly. Someone counted 15 bodies on a patch of ground less than five feet wide and three feet long. It has been estimated that 10,500 Johnny Rebs made the charge and 5,675—roughly 54 percent—fell dead or wounded. As a Captain Spessard charged, he saw his son shot dead. He laid him out gently on the ground, kissed him, and got back to advancing.

As the minority who hadn’t been cut to ribbons streamed back to the Confederate lines, Lee rode in splendid calm among them, apologizing. “It’s all my fault,” he assured stunned privates and corporals. He took the time to admonish, mildly, an officer who was beating his horse: “Don’t whip him, captain it does no good. I had a foolish horse, once, and kind treatment is the best.” Then he resumed his apologies: “I am very sorry—the task was too great for you—but we mustn’t despond.” Shelby Foote has called this Lee’s finest moment. But generals don’t want apologies from those beneath them, and that goes both ways. After midnight, he told a cavalry officer, “I never saw troops behave more magnificently than Pickett’s division of Virginians. . . . ” Then he fell silent, and it was then that he exclaimed, as the officer later wrote it down, “Too bad! Too bad! ¡OH! TOO BAD!”

Pickett’s charge wasn’t the half of it. Altogether at Gettysburg as many as 28,000 Confederates were killed, wounded, captured, or missing: more than a third of Lee’s whole army. Perhaps it was because Meade and his troops were so stunned by their own losses—about 23,000—that they failed to pursue Lee on his withdrawal south, trap him against the flooded Potomac, and wipe his army out. Lincoln and the Northern press were furious that this didn’t happen.

For months Lee had been traveling with a pet hen. Meant for the stewpot, she had won his heart by entering his tent first thing every morning and laying his breakfast egg under his Spartan cot. As the Army of Northern Virginia was breaking camp in all deliberate speed for the withdrawal, Lee’s staff ran around anxiously crying, “Where is the hen?” Lee himself found her nestled in her accustomed spot on the wagon that transported his personal matériel. Life goes on.

After Gettysburg, Lee never mounted another murderous head-on assault. He went on the defensive. Grant took over command of the eastern front and 118,700 men. He set out to grind Lee’s 64,000 down. Lee had his men well dug in. Grant resolved to turn his flank, force him into a weaker position, and crush him.

On April 9, 1865, Lee finally had to admit that he was trapped. At the beginning of Lee’s long, combative retreat by stages from Grant’s overpowering numbers, he had 64,000 men. By the end they had inflicted 63,000 Union casualties but had been reduced themselves to fewer than 10,000.

To be sure, there were those in Lee’s army who proposed continuing the struggle as guerrillas or by reorganizing under the governors of the various Confederate states. Lee cut off any such talk. He was a professional soldier. He had seen more than enough of governors who would be commanders, and he had no respect for ragtag guerrilladom. He told Col. Edward Porter Alexander, his artillery commander, . . . the men would become mere bands of marauders, and the enemy’s cavalry would pursue them and overrun many wide sections they may never have occasion to visit. We would bring on a state of affairs it would take the country years to recover from.”

“And, as for myself, you young fellows might go to bushwhacking, but the only dignified course for me would be, to go to Gen. Grant and surrender myself and take the consequences.” That is what he did on April 9, 1865, at a farmhouse in the village of Appomattox Court House, wearing a fulldress uniform and carrying a borrowed ceremonial sword which he did not surrender.

Thomas Morris Chester, the only black correspondent for a major daily newspaper (the Philadelphia Press) during the war, had nothing but scorn for the Confederacy, and referred to Lee as a “notorious rebel.” But when Chester witnessed Lee’s arrival in shattered, burned-out Richmond after the surrender, his dispatch sounded a more sympathetic note. After Lee “alighted from his horse, he immediately uncovered his head, thinly covered with silver hairs, as he had done in acknowledgment of the veneration of the people along the streets,” Chester wrote. “There was a general rush of the small crowd to shake hands with him. During these manifestations not a word was spoken, and when the ceremony was through, the General bowed and ascended his steps. The silence was then broken by a few voices calling for a speech, to which he paid no attention. The General then passed into his house, and the crowd dispersed.”


Robert E. Lee dies

General Robert Edward Lee, the commander of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, dies at his home in Lexington, Virginia. He was 63 years old.

Lee was born to Henry Lee and Ann Carter Lee at Stratford Hall, Virginia, in 1807. His father served in the American Revolution under George Washington and was later a governor of Virginia. Robert Lee attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point and graduated second in his class in 1829. He did not earn a single demerit during his four years at the academy. Afterward,Lee embarked on a military career, eventually fighting in the Mexican War (1846-48) and later serving as the superintendent of West Point.

When the Civil War broke out in 1861, Lee sided with the Confederacy and spent the first year of the war as an advisor to Confederate President Jefferson Davis. He assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia when Joseph Johnston was wounded in battle in May 1862. Over the next three years, Lee earned a reputation for his brilliant tactics and battlefield leadership. However, his invasions of the North, at Antietam in Maryland and Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, ended in defeat.


Lee, a member of a prominent Virginia family, was the son of "Light Horse Harry" Lee, a hero of the American Revolution. His older brother, Sydney Lee, served as commandant at Annapolis, commanded Commodore Perry's flagship in the Japan expedition, and later served in the Confederate Navy. Robert graduated from West Point in 1829, second in his class of forty-six. He then served at various forts along the east coast before being assigned chief engineer for the St. Louis, Missouri, harbor. During the Mexican War Lee served on the staff of General Winfield Scott in the Vera Cruz expedition, receiving in succession the brevets of major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel. Después de la guerra Lee returned to supervise construction of fortifications until appointed superintendent of West Point, a position he held from 1852 to 1855. Later he was transferred from the engineer corps and assigned as lieutenant colonel of the 2d Cavalry. In late 1859 the abolitionist John Brown made his raid on the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry Lee, on leave in Washington, was sent with a force of marines from the Navy Yard to capture the raiders. In early 1861 Lee was promoted to colonel of the 1st Cavalry, his commission signed by the newly elected Abraham Lincoln. However, when he was offered command of forces that would invade the South, Lee resigned his commission.

In late April he was appointed major general and commander of Virginia military forces. A month later, when Virginia became part of the Confederacy, Lee was commissioned first a brigadier general in the Confederate Army (no higher rank having been created at that time) and later general. In March 1862 he became the military adviser to President Jefferson Davis. At the beginning of June Lee succeeded the wounded General Joseph E. Johnston in command of the Army oF Northern Virginia in charge of defending Richmond. Lee led his army through a series of victories-at the Battles of the Seven Days, Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville-punctuated by reverses at Antietam and Gettysburg. In February 1865 Lee was appointed general in chief of the Confederate armies but two months later, on 9 April, he was forced to surrender the Ejército de Virginia del Norte at Appomattox Court House. Después de la guerra Lee accepted the presidency of Washington College at Lexington, Virginia, and served there until his death. (The school's name was later changed to Washington and Lee University.)


Robert Edward Lee

One of the most revered of American soldiers, Robert Edward Lee (1807–1870) was born at Stratford in Westmoreland County, Virginia, in 1807, the son of Revolutionary War general Light Horse Harry Lee. Before the Civil War, few men could match Lee's record of achievement in the army. Graduating without a single demerit and second in his class from West Point in 1829, he served for several years with distinction as a military engineer, steadily rising in rank and reputation.

During the Mexican War, his extraordinary bravery and ability won him the lasting confidence of fellow Virginian and American commander, General Winfield Scott. Later, Lee was appointed superintendent of West Point then he returned to line duty with the 2nd U.S. Cavalry on the West Texas frontier. Early in 1861, he was recalled to Washington by General Scott.

Politically a moderate, strongly attached to the Union, and with no special sympathy for the institution of slavery, Lee watched with growing anxiety as the lower South seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. When Virginia left the Union, Lee made the most difficult decision of his life. His old friend and mentor General Scott offered him principal command of the United States Army. But Lee maintained his conscience would not allow him to bear arms against his native Virginia. He submitted his resignation and traveled to Richmond where he was named commander-in-chief of the military and naval forces of Virginia. Soon he was commissioned as a general in the Confederate army. Probably, he is the only man in history offered the command of opposing armies.

With the wounding of General Joseph E. Johnston at Seven Pines in May 1862, Lee was given command of the Army of Northern Virginia. Initially successful in a series of brilliant campaigns, Lee adopted a largely defensive strategy after a stunning defeat at Gettysburg in July 1863. From the Wilderness to Petersburg, he tried desperately to hold a much larger Union army at bay. Dislodged at Petersburg, his weakened forces surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant's army at Appomattox on April 9, 1865.

General Lee returned to Richmond, but several months later he accepted the presidency of Washington College in Lexington, Virginia, which after his death was renamed Washington and Lee. He devoted the remaining five years of his life to education and the healing of old animosities, and he died, mourned both in the North and South, in October 1870.

VHS accession number: 1957.29

Image rights owned by the Virginia Historical Society. Rights and reproductions

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Lee History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The name Lee was carried to England in the enormous movement of people that followed the Norman Conquest of 1066. The Lee family lived in any of the various places named Leigh in England. There are at least 16 counties that contain a place named Leigh. The place-name was originally derived from the Old English word leah, which means wood clearing. [1] The English Lee family is descended from the Norman Lee family. The family name Lee became popular in England after the Norman Conquest, when William the Conqueror gave his friends and relatives most of the land formerly owned by Anglo-Saxon aristocrats. The Normans frequently adopted the names of their recently acquired estates in England.

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Early Origins of the Lee family

The surname Lee was first found in Cheshire, at High Leigh, where the name is from "an eminent family, who for centuries in that county nearly all the gentry families of that name claim descent." [2]

Of note are the following ancient families: Legh of East Hall, in High Legh, county Chester, descended from Efward de Lega, who lived at or near the period of the Conquest and who appears to have a Saxon origin Leigh of West Hall, in High Leigh, originally De Lynne who married a Legh heiress in the 13th century and Leigh of Adlestrop (Baron Leigh) county Gloucester, descended from Agens, daughter and heiress of Richard de Legh. [3]

"The Lees of Lee, and Darnhall, co. Chester, now represented by the Townshends of Hem and Trevallyn, and the Lees of Quarendon, Bucks, of whom was the gallant Sir Henry Lee, K.G. and the Lees of Ditchley, Earls of Lichfield, whose descendant Viscount Dillon now possesses the Ditchley estate, spring from the De Lee of Battle Abbey." [4]

Leigh is a fairly common place name that dates back to pre-Conquest times as Leigh, Herefordshire and Worcestershire were both listed as Beornothesleah in 972. [1]

There are over nineteen villages that are either named Leigh or include Leigh in their name throughout Britain. The parish of Hughley in Shropshire derives "its name from Hugh de Lea, proprietor of the manor in the twelfth century, and ancestor of the Leas of Langley and Lea Hall." [5]

"The township [of Poulton with Fearnhead, Lancashire] has been the property of the Legh family, of Lyme, since their union with the Haydocks. Bruch, or Birch, the old manor-house, existing in the 12th of Charles I., was given by Sir Peter Legh to his fourth son Peter, whose grand-daughter married the grandson of Dr. Thomas Legh, the third son of Sir Peter." [5]


Robert Edward Lee

One of the most revered of American soldiers, Robert Edward Lee (1807–1870) was born at Stratford in Westmoreland County, Virginia, in 1807, the son of Revolutionary War general Light Horse Harry Lee. Before the Civil War, few men could match Lee's record of achievement in the army. Graduating without a single demerit and second in his class from West Point in 1829, he served for several years with distinction as a military engineer, steadily rising in rank and reputation.

During the Mexican War, his extraordinary bravery and ability won him the lasting confidence of fellow Virginian and American commander, General Winfield Scott. Later, Lee was appointed superintendent of West Point then he returned to line duty with the 2nd U.S. Cavalry on the West Texas frontier. Early in 1861, he was recalled to Washington by General Scott.

Politically a moderate, strongly attached to the Union, and with no special sympathy for the institution of slavery, Lee watched with growing anxiety as the lower South seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. When Virginia left the Union, Lee made the most difficult decision of his life. His old friend and mentor General Scott offered him principal command of the United States Army. But Lee maintained his conscience would not allow him to bear arms against his native Virginia. He submitted his resignation and traveled to Richmond where he was named commander-in-chief of the military and naval forces of Virginia. Soon he was commissioned as a general in the Confederate army. Probably, he is the only man in history offered the command of opposing armies.

With the wounding of General Joseph E. Johnston at Seven Pines in May 1862, Lee was given command of the Army of Northern Virginia. Initially successful in a series of brilliant campaigns, Lee adopted a largely defensive strategy after a stunning defeat at Gettysburg in July 1863. From the Wilderness to Petersburg, he tried desperately to hold a much larger Union army at bay. Dislodged at Petersburg, his weakened forces surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant's army at Appomattox on April 9, 1865.

General Lee returned to Richmond, but several months later he accepted the presidency of Washington College in Lexington, Virginia, which after his death was renamed Washington and Lee. He devoted the remaining five years of his life to education and the healing of old animosities, and he died, mourned both in the North and South, in October 1870.

VHS accession number: 1957.29

Image rights owned by the Virginia Historical Society. Rights and reproductions

Become a member! Enjoy exciting benefits and explore new exhibitions year-round.


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