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Panther II SC-1470 - Historia

Panther II SC-1470 - Historia

Pantera II

(SC-1470: dp. 99; 1. 111'6 ", b; 17'9"; dr. 5'6 "; s. 15 k .; a.

SC-1470, un sub-cazador construido para los Estados Unidos bajo un contrato de arrendamiento inverso por Leblanc Shipbuilding Co., Weymouth, Nueva Escocia, en 1942, se lanzó el 17 de junio de 1942, se transfirió a la Marina de los EE. UU. En esa fecha y se encargó en Weymouth. 23 de octubre de 1942.

Después de acondicionarse en el Astillero Naval de Boston, SC-1470 salió de patrulla fuera de Tompkinsville, NY Patrulló entre Boston y Norfolk hasta el 21 de enero de 1943, cuando partió de Tompkinsville para operar desde Miami como una unidad del Mar Caribe. Frontera. Este fue un período crítico para los subcazadores en el área, ya que la campaña de los submarinos amenazó con sofocar el shupping caribeño.

Adjunto a la Frontera del Mar del Golfo el 23 de mayo de 1943, SC-1470 continuó las operaciones ASW y de escolta en un área más restringida. Su designación fue cambiada a IX 105 y fue nombrada Pantera el 26 de junio de 1943. Fue evaluada como unsea

digno y dado de baja el 7 de julio y puesto en servicio el mismo día. Continuó en servicio hasta el 21 de enero de 1946, cuando fue puesta fuera de servicio y expulsada del Registro de la Armada. Posteriormente fue vendida para desguace el 13 de febrero


Testimonios

Chris y Jerry, ¡muchas gracias por su ayuda con este problema! Ciertamente lo aprecio, y me jactaré de su servicio de atención al cliente personal con mis amigos aquí en Charleston, SC.

Fantástico. No puedo decirlo lo suficiente, ¡excelente servicio al cliente! Un millón de gracias.

¡Gracias, Chris! ¡Aprecio toda tu ayuda! Estoy seguro de que esfuerzos como este mantienen a CMP como líder en la industria. Apreciamos su orientación mientras trabajamos en esto.


El Pershing y la Pantera

El 6 de marzo de 1945, el tanque del sargento Bob Earley estaba parado en una intersección en Colonia, Alemania. Delante de él estaba la Catedral de Colonia, el gran premio de una de las últimas ciudades alemanas que aún permanecen en pie en la Segunda Guerra Mundial. El comandante de un Pershing T26E3 llamado Eagle 7, Earley no sabía que él y los otros cuatro miembros de su tripulación estaban a punto de ser inmortalizados en la historia. Acurrucado debajo de él en la escotilla del conductor estaba Woody McVeigh.

Junto a McVeigh en el casco estaba el operador de radio Homer "Smokey" Davis con su característica capucha tejida de los petroleros. En la torreta con Earley estaba el cargador John "Johnny Boy" DeRiggi y el artillero de 21 años, Clarence Smoyer. DeRiggi estaba a la izquierda de Earley, saliendo de su propia escotilla. A principios de la guerra, DeRiggi había cambiado por un casco de petrolero francés & # x27s y eso lo convirtió en una figura reconocible al instante. La tripulación había estado luchando junta desde septiembre de 1944.

El vehículo al que llamaron hogar era el tanque más nuevo del Ejército de los Estados Unidos (EE. UU.). Después de años de quejas de los petroleros estadounidenses sobre las deficiencias del M4 Sherman como vehículo de combate, el ejército de los EE. UU. Finalmente tenía una herramienta que podía igualar a los alemanes. El sargento Earley fue uno de los pocos afortunados. Su Pershing era uno de los 20 que se habían enviado a Europa para pruebas de combate. El precio que él y su tripulación pagaron por tener el mejor equipo fue que se esperaba que llevaran su unidad al corazón de Colonia. Pero un lamentable enfrentamiento en una intersección a cuadras de la Catedral había detenido la columna. Earley solo pudo ver cómo un trío de médicos intentaba desesperadamente salvar a un par de civiles alemanes que habían quedado atrapados en un fuego cruzado entre Eagle 7 y un Panzer IV alemán.

Con el Pershing estancado, el esfuerzo principal recayó en los Sherman de Fox Company en una calle paralela. Liderando esta columna estaba Karl Kellner y su equipo. Un residente de Sheboygan, Wisconsin, el Kellner con anteojos había recibido recientemente un ascenso a segundo teniente. Sin embargo, Kellner no era nuevo en el campo de batalla. Ya había sido herido dos veces y recibió la Estrella de Plata por su valor en Normandía. Estaba bien preparado para llevar a su pelotón a la Catedral. Pero el no estaba solo.

Junto a la infantería acompañante se encontraba un grupo de reporteros y fotógrafos. Se mantenían cerca de las líneas del frente, ansiosos por escuchar historias sobre la caída de Colonia. Entre ellos se encontraba Jim Bates, residente de Colorado Springs y camarógrafo de Alexander Film Company antes de la guerra. Bates estaba a punto de capturar el primer duelo de tanques, y posiblemente el más famoso, jamás capturado en una película.

Delante de Kellner estaba la Komodienstrasse. Corriendo de este a oeste, esta calle discurría directamente entre la Plaza de la Catedral y la estación de tren al lado. Cuando comenzó su movimiento por la calle, Kellner no se dio cuenta de que una pantera alemana estaba tendida en una emboscada cerca de la estación de tren. La tripulación del Panther del segundo teniente Wilhelm Bartelborth estaba preparada para luchar hasta el final. El puente Hohenzollernbrucke fue destruido detrás de ellos. Su demolición prematura los había dejado de espaldas al Rin y con un sombrío sentido de determinación. Tenían el vehículo perfecto para una pelea. El Panther superó al Sherman en prácticamente todas las categorías. Junto con su primo felino el Tigre, Panthers había estado aterrorizando a las tripulaciones de los tanques aliados desde Normandía.

El movimiento de Kellner inicialmente transcurrió sin incidentes. Sin embargo, justo después de la intersección de Komodienstrasse y Andreaskloster, en el lado este de la iglesia dominicana de St. Andrews, había un montón de escombros que los Sherman no pudieron limpiar ni pasar por alto. Tuvieron que esperar por una topadora. Con los Sherman canalizados en una calle estrecha, Bartelborth soltó su trampa. Dos de los proyectiles de 75 mm del Panther se estrellaron contra la torreta del Sherman de Kellner en rápida sucesión. Un tercero rompió las vías del Sherman detrás de Kellner mientras trataba de ponerse a cubierto.

Los primeros proyectiles mataron inmediatamente al artillero y al conductor de Kellner mientras tomaban su pierna izquierda. Las cámaras estaban rodando cuando Kellner se bajó de la parte trasera de su Sherman, el muñón de su pierna izquierda claramente se veía humeando. Un periodista, algunos camiones cisterna y un médico acudieron en ayuda de Kellner. Pero fue inútil. Moriría dos horas después en un cráter de proyectiles, a los 26 años. De su tripulación de cinco hombres, solo sobrevivirían el cargador y el artillero de proa de Kellner.

En el camino, se escuchó el chirrido de las orugas mientras el Panther se deslizaba hacia adelante desde su posición.

Una calle hacia el norte y un cuarto de milla detrás, Earley escuchó el parloteo en la radio, pero no estaba seguro de lo que había sucedido. No hasta que Jim Bates se subió a su torreta y le dijo que había un Panther en la Plaza de la Catedral. Inseguros de dónde estaba el Panther, Bates y Earley caminaron por la calle hasta que pudieron meterse en el edificio del Frente Laborista Alemán. Desde allí podían ver hacia el sur por la Marzellenstrasse hasta la Plaza de la Catedral. Estaban mirando al costado del Panther. Se había movido hacia adelante, pero su cañón todavía estaba orientado hacia la Komodienstrasse.

Earley vio una oportunidad y volvió a su tanque. Jim Bates configuró su cámara. La poderosa Panther estaba a punto de encontrar su pareja.

Earley y Eagle 7 salieron de debajo de la sombra del Commerzbank hacia el Panther. Con el Panther distraído, se suponía que iba a ser una muerte fácil. Pero Bartelborth era un comandante de tanques experimentado y su sexto sentido se disparó. Giró su torreta sobre el lado derecho del casco. En el edificio del Frente Laborista Alemán, Jim Bates entró en pánico. El Panther estaba mirando directamente hacia donde el Pershing doblaría la esquina. Indefenso, todo lo que pudo hacer fue rodar la cámara.

El corazón de Smokey dio un vuelco cuando Eagle 7 entró en la intersección. Sentado en la parte delantera derecha del vehículo, Smokey fue el primero en ver al Panther. Fue el primero en mirar por el cañón. Smoyer todavía no había girado lo suficiente la torreta cuando cruzaron la esquina. Aún no estaba en el objetivo. El Panther, pre-dirigido y quieto, tenía todas las ventajas. Pero no disparó. Bartelborth vaciló. Nunca había visto ni oído hablar de un Pershing. Creyendo que era alemán, le dijo a su artillero que no disparara. Smoyer no tenía tal inclinación. Tan pronto como vio la masa central, apretó el gatillo. DeRiggi inmediatamente golpeó otro proyectil en la recámara. Y luego un tercero.

Se encendió la cámara de Bates. Aunque sacudido por las conmociones cerebrales del cañón de 90 mm del Pershing, el metraje captura claramente cada uno de los tres impactos. Con el primer impacto, se puede ver a Bartelborth y otros tres miembros de la tripulación, uno con la ropa en llamas, evacuando el vehículo. Huyeron con éxito en una lluvia de rastreadores de la infantería que se había acercado con Eagle 7. Pero el artillero colocado más profundo en la torreta, no tiene tanta suerte. Se está abriendo camino visiblemente por la escotilla del comandante cuando la segunda ronda golpea el anillo de la torreta. Muerto, se desliza hacia la torreta para ser consumido por las llamas. El tercer disparo de Smoyer sella el compromiso.

Ahora un infierno furioso, llamas brillantes se elevan desde las escotillas del Panther, y los orificios de penetración brillan como heridas fatales y airadas. Jim Bates sacude y captura las agujas de la Catedral que se elevan sobre la Pantera. Bob Earley y los hombres de Eagle 7 pueden limpiarse las cejas y domar sus corazones acelerados. La batalla por Colonia ha terminado.


Pantera II

El Panther II es un tanque sólido y capaz en las manos adecuadas, comprender que sus fortalezas y debilidades son la clave del éxito. El Panther II no es un luchador. Carece tanto de la velocidad como de la agilidad para hacerlo con mucho éxito. Sin embargo, puede ser un flanker muy exitoso, siempre y cuando elijas tus objetivos. El francotirador siempre es preferencial en el Panther II sobre el compromiso directo, pero no descarte por completo el desguace, el Panther II puede recibir algunos golpes decentes, pero solo arriesgarse si tiene apoyo. El Panther II funciona mejor en un paquete, como cualquier otro medio. Salir solo a menudo resultará en una ruina humeante.

Si es posible, intente solo exponer su torreta al enemigo. Como la mayoría de los tanques alemanes, la placa inferior del glacis es una gran debilidad, una que los oponentes inteligentes explotarán fácilmente si se les da la oportunidad. Los disparos a través del glacis inferior a menudo encontrarán su motor roto y, a menudo, prendido en llamas. También puede ser difícil jugar con el vehículo en pendientes, ya que falta la depresión del cañón.

Los equipos imprescindibles para este tanque son la barra de carga y el estabilizador vertical para reducir el tiempo de recarga y mejorar drásticamente el rendimiento de la pistola. La tercera opción de equipo es preferencial, un Gun Laying Drive reducirá el tiempo de apuntar cuando se detiene y ayudará a disparar más rápidamente, la óptica recubierta aumenta el rango de visión en un 10% constantemente y los telescopios binoculares ayudarán a detectar muy bien incluso los tanques camuflados, pero solo cuando el tanque está estacionario. El estilo de juego determinará cuál de estos es el mejor para ti.

Aunque mal visto, el Panther II, a diferencia de su predecesor, pueden Juega un papel similar al de un peleador pesado, pero de una manera que lo distingue de casi cualquier otro tanque del juego. Usa la buena penetración de la pistola superior del Panther II a tu favor asesinando a oponentes desprevenidos y muy dañados, pesados, medios, de cualquier clase que sean. Aprender los puntos débiles de los tanques y dónde su arma puede penetrar su armadura solo mejorará esta habilidad. Equipar un pisón de cañón de tanque y una unidad de colocación de cañón mejorada aumenta aún más el peligro en el juego tardío en el que se convierte este tanque. El Panther II y los que lo siguen pueden convertirse en tanques de juego tardío extremadamente peligrosos en las manos adecuadas. Con una tripulación de élite, este tanque puede detectar más lejos, girar y apuntar más rápido, y con su alto DPM dispara a casi cualquier otro tanque en su nivel de clases. En esencia, este tanque puede convertirse engañosamente en un juego tardío "Medio-pesado" en áreas urbanas en particular. Elimina los tanques gravemente heridos, recorre calles y callejones, ponte a cubierto y burla a tus enemigos, mantente atento a los objetivos recién descubiertos y elimínalos lo más rápido que puedas y podrás girar por completo, si no. ayudar a cambiar el rumbo de una batalla. Este tipo de juego es muy viable en los partidos de nivel 8 y 9, pero es mejor que se familiarice con las capacidades de Panther II antes de intentar tal hazaña, y no se recomienda especialmente si ya ha sufrido daños graves.

Investigación temprana

Lo primero que se debe actualizar es la torreta, que brinda un rango de visión y blindaje adicionales y brinda más mejoras que la suspensión. Luego investigue la suspensión, para que luego pueda investigar y montar el L / 71 o L / 100. El motor no da una gran mejora a este medio pesado, así que investiga esto último.

Información histórica


En una reunión el 10 de febrero de 1943, se propusieron más cambios de diseño, incluidos cambios en los engranajes de dirección y mandos finales. Otra reunión el 17 de febrero de 1943 se centró en compartir y estandarizar partes entre el tanque Tiger II y el Panther 2, como la transmisión, las ruedas de carretera de acero y el tren de rodaje. No se hicieron planes para incluir el 8,8 cm L / 71 ya que el diámetro de la torreta era demasiado pequeño. En marzo de 1943, MAN indicó que el primer prototipo estaría terminado en agosto de 1943. Se estaban considerando varios motores, entre ellos el nuevo motor de inyección de combustible Maybach HL 234 (900 hp accionado por una transmisión hidráulica de 8 velocidades).


Por lo tanto, los planes para reemplazar el diseño original de Panther con el Panther II ya estaban en marcha antes de que el primer Panther incluso hubiera visto combate. Pero, de mayo a junio de 1943, cesó el trabajo en el Panther II, ya que la atención se centró en expandir la producción del tanque Panther original. No está claro si alguna vez hubo una cancelación oficial, esto puede haber sido porque la ruta de actualización de Panther II se inició originalmente por insistencia de Hitler. La dirección en la que se dirigió el diseño no habría sido coherente con la necesidad de Alemania de un tanque de producción masiva, que era el objetivo del Ministerio de Armamento y Producción de Guerra del Reich. Además, muchos de los problemas que el Panther II tenía que resolver se habían resuelto, como el blindaje lateral débil.


Sir Roger Dalton de Croston

Sir Roger Dalton de Croston nació alrededor de 1470 en Byspham, Lancashire, Inglaterra, hijo de Sir Richard Dalton y Elizabeth Fleming. Murió alrededor de 1531 en Byspham. Sir Roger fue el último de nuestros Dalton Knight durante muchas generaciones.

Sir Roger se casó con 4 esposas:

2) Señorita Standyce - no hay problema

3) Señorita Farynton - no hay problema

En 1500, el hijo de Richard, Roger, se asoció como heredero con su padre en la concesión de varias tierras en Croston y Mawdesley, pero reservando las tierras de Manor y Demesne. Las diversas escrituras y documentos muestran que así como Richard había ido más lejos y se había establecido en Croston durante la vida de su padre, Roger estaba haciendo lo mismo y construyendo una herencia familiar de valor creciente. En el pedigrí se le describe como `` de Dalton Hall, Yorks, y después de Croston ''.

Roger se casó con Anne, hija de Sir John Ratclyff. Anne nació en Wymerly alrededor de 1475. En la Visitación de Lancashire del Herald en 1613, Roger es el primer antepasado de Dalton nombrado en relación con los Ratclyff. Se desconoce la fecha de su matrimonio, pero como se hizo una concesión de varias viviendas en Bispham al hijo de Roger, William, ya en 1500, debe haber tenido lugar algún tiempo antes de eso.

La familia Ratcliff o Radclyff, dice el Ancestro, `` estaban verdaderamente entre las familias más antiguas de Lancashire ''. (Ver Genealogists Magazine, Vol. IX, p. 137 (marzo de 1941) (Review of Book of the Radclyff 1940). La familia de Anne Ratcliff descendió directamente del rey Enrique II de Inglaterra a través de su amante, Rosemund, y su hijo William, conde de Salisbury 1173-1225.

En 1525, el nombre de Roger Dalton está en la lista de los propietarios de tierras en la parroquia de Croston que contribuyen al Subsidio, otros son Thomas Ashton, Henry Banastre, Robert y Bartholomew Hesketh, y algunos otros. Se asoció con su padre en 1527 en la realización de una subvención que menciona a William Dalton el mayor, su tío, como aún vivo en ese entonces.

Roger Dalton era esposo de no menos de cuatro esposas y padre de al menos 16 hijos. Roger y su primera esposa, Anne Ratcliff, tenían:

1. Roger, que no dejó ningún problema.

2. Sybell, se casó con William Wolberd Draper y, según los informes, no dejó ningún problema.

4. William nació en 1513 en Byspham

La segunda esposa de Roger era la señorita Standyche y la tercera, la señorita Farynton, pero no tuvo ningún problema con su segunda o tercera esposa. “Lo compensó con su cuarta esposa, Jane, hija y uno de los cuatro herederos de Roger Jakes de Barkemsted y de Mawde Shordyche. Jane le dio 8 hijos y 5 hijas:

I . Lawrence. Se casó con Dorothy Bream. Se convirtió en Heraldo, Rey de Armas de Norroy. Su línea aún sobrevive en el año 2000. Lawrence murió el 13 de diciembre de 1561 y está enterrado en St. Dunstan's en el oeste de Londres.

2. Margaret quien se casó, primero, con Richard Pawley de Londres, Pescadero, quien era padre de dos hijos: Walter y Dorothy Pawley. Se casó, en segundo lugar con Thomas Weston de Londres, un sastre.

3. Anne. Se casó con Thomas Baker de Barkensted. No hay duda de que este era el Berkhamsted, a 30 millas de Londres, en Hertfordshire, que era el lugar natal de Jane Jakes. Anne Baker tuvo cinco hijos.

4. Cyssely, quien se casó con Chygwell de Essex.

5. Elizabeth que se casó con Francis Colbarne y tuvo dos hijas.

6. Hija (sin nombre) se casó primero con Richard Nott / Knott de Londres & quotale bruer & quot y, en segundo lugar, con Robert Vady.

7. 7 otros hijos que no sobrevivieron.

Evidentemente, la segunda familia de Roger Dalton (como adultos) emigró con fuerza a Londres. Pero de toda esta gran familia, solo dos hombres sobrevivieron para continuar con el apellido: William (nuestra línea) y su medio hermano, Lawrence.

Inglaterra: Canterbury - Testamentos probados en el tribunal de prerrogativas de Canterbury, 1383-1558 (A-J)

1543 Dalton, Roger, escudero, Croston, Lancashire Dalton, Yorks. F. 29 Spert

La voluntad de Roger Dalton de Croston:

Roger se describe en el pedigrí como de Dalton Hall en Yorkshyre y después de Croston. Todavía poseía tierras en Yorkshire en la fecha de su testamento, pero presumiblemente se mudó a Croston en algún momento. Quizás al triunfar en la muerte de su padre.

El testamento de Roger Dalton fue probado en el Tribunal de Prerrogativas del Arzobispo de Canterbury y he obtenido de la Oficina de Registro Público (ref. 11/29) una fotocopia de la inscripción del testamento y de un documento inscrito con él en los registros de La corte. Ambos están en latín, a veces muy abreviados y no son fáciles de transcribir. Puede que haya cometido algunos errores en mis transcripciones, pero creo que son sustancialmente precisas. Creo que por parte de la información que brindan, vale la pena transcribirlos de manera bastante completa.

`` En el nombre de Dios Amén, el diez de marzo del año de nuestro Señor 1531, yo, Roger Dalton Knight, de mente sana y buena memoria, pero enfermo de cuerpo, hago mi voluntad en esta forma Primero lego mi alma al Dios omnipotente y al Bendita María y todos los santos y elegidos de la iglesia y mi cuerpo para ser enterrado en una pequeña tumba religiosa en la iglesia de San Miguel Arcángel de Croston en el presbiterio de la misma iglesia con el permiso y la disposición del coadjutor de la mismo por el momento en el cargo junto a la tumba de mi padre (corpus quo meum ad sepeliend in parva sepultura ecclesiastiva sancti Michis Arch ecclie de Croston in cancello eiusdem cum licencia et providencia curati siusdem tunc pro tempe existen juxta sepultur patris mei). Luego doy y lego un pago mortuorio al vicario de la misma iglesia según el Acto hecho y constituido por el Rey. A continuación, doy y lego a mis hijas, Anne, Margaret, Joan y Elizabeth doscientos marcos. Luego le doy y lego a mi hijo Richard, cuatro marcos anuales hasta que sea promovido a algún beneficio de diez libras o más al año (donec sit promotus ad aliquot benefice decem librarum annuatim aut ultra) Y deseo que todas las demás cosas estén al día. disposición de Roger Jakes, Thomas Jakes y mi hijo Richard, a quienes ordeno hacer y constituir mis verdaderos y legítimos albaceas para que ellos mismos dispongan en beneficio de mi alma o según les parezca mejor. Entonces ordeno y constituyo a Henry Faryington, Caballero Richard Bonaster, Bankes Knight y Richmond supervisores de este mi testamento y voluntad. Entonces deseo que las deudas no pagadas en la fecha de mi muerte puedan ser pagadas con mis bienes. En testimonio de lo que he puesto en este mi testamento de una hoja de papel con mi sello, Dado el día y año arriba indicados.

El testamento fue probado en Londres el 6 de diciembre de 1543 por Roger Jakes y Richard Dalton.

Inscrito con el testamento en los registros del Tribunal de Prerrogativas es un documento aún más difícil de transcribir que el testamento y también en latín. Pero en esencia creo que dice

`` Conozca a todos los hombres presentes y futuros que yo, Roger Dalton, Knight, he dado determinado y por este mi documento confirmado a Anthony Lathom, caballero, Thomas Bond, Vicario de la Iglesia de Croston, Richard Clerk, Vicario de la Iglesia de Leigh y Adam Bonaster, todos mis mensajes, tierras, viviendas, prados, pastos, pastos, alquileres y todas sus pertenencias en Dalton en el condado de Yorkshire (en Dalton en comitate Eboraci) para tener y mantener todos y singulares estos mensajes, tierras, viviendas y otras premisas antedichas a Anthony Lathom, Thomas Bond, Richard Clerk y Adam Bonaster y sus cesionarios para siempre al uso e intención de cumplir esta mi última voluntad y testamento anexado a este documento para que luego de cumplirse dicho testamento todos los dichos mensajes, tierras , las casas de vecindad y otras instalaciones pueden permanecer total y justamente a mis herederos, dijo Roger a perpetuidad.

Luego siguen oraciones en las que Roger parece decir que él y sus herederos garantizarán y defenderán todas las premisas mencionadas a Anthony Thomas, Richard y Adam contra todos los hombres y nombra a Thomas Lathom como su abogado legal para obtener la posesión de todas las premisas mencionadas. para Anthony Thomas, Richard y Adam.

El documento fue sellado por Roger con su sello en presencia de John Smyth, el capellán George Nelson, Thomas Graveson, John Stopforth y otros el día 10 de marzo del año 23 del reinado del rey Enrique VIII (1531).

HISTORIAS DEL CONDADO DE VICTORIA DE LANCASHIRE:

Lady Strange tenía tierras en Chorley y Bolton de Thomas Ashton y Roger Dalton de Croston.

Robert Dalton fue uno de los terratenientes de Croston que contribuyó al subsidio para laicos.

ARCHIVO [sin título] - ref. DDB 10/12 - fecha: 2 de septiembre de 1501

Beca: Richard Dalton, Roger su hijo y heredero, William Wall, secretario, y Sir Richard Shirburne, a Seth Wodecoke, secretario, Henry Faryngton, esq., Thomas hijo, heredero de William Lathome, y James Anderton - mitad de la mansión de Wath - mantener de por vida a Mary, esposa de Roger Dalton e hija de Sir William Faryngton.

ACUERDOS, HIPOTECAS Y DOCUMENTOS RELACIONADOS CON VARIAS PROPIEDADES

ARCHIVO - HE 60/20 - fecha: 20 de octubre de 1499

Renuncia: Roger Dalton a Thomas Hesketh, esq. - mensajes en el mandato de Robert Wuddes, Otuel Maudisley y Robert Nicholasson, en Croston y Maudisley - Witn: Hugh Aughton, Henry Banastre, George Becansaw, esqs., Hugh Thornton, Hugh Banastre.

ARCHIVO - HE 60/21 - fecha: 9 de enero de 1499/1500

Renuncia: Roger Dalton a Thomas Hesketh, esq. - propiedades en Croston y Maudisley y John Brethirton y Henry Hawarth - Witn: Hugh Aughton, Henry Banastre, George Becansaw esqs.

ARCHIVO - HE 25/64 - fecha: 21 de junio de 1519

Auto de Edward Stanley, Lord Mountegle, Sheriff de Lancashire, a los Mayordomos de Leylondshire, Blakburnshire y Derbyshire, y a los agentes de Longton, Croston, Mawdisley y Rufford, Thomas Lathum, John Smyth y John Watkynson, que Roger Dalton , esq. ha tomado bienes de Thomas Hesketh en Longton y los ha detenido. Sello.

ARCHIVO - HE 60/37 - fecha: 4 de enero de 1519/20

Escritura de pactos: (i) Thomas Hesketh, esq. (ii) Roger Dalton, esq. y William su hijo y heredero, y (iii) Bartholomew Hesketh - R.D., W.D. y B.H. vender a T.H. sus propiedades en Longton y Mawdisley al final del mandato de Miles Sompnor y la esposa de Richard Sharpuls llamadas Tumlyns, valoradas en 23 peniques. anualmente también 8d. alquiler de Fysher Erthe en Mawdisley también una vivienda tardía en el mandato de Richard Assheton en Mawdisley valor 20 / - anual también la mitad de Groston Milne valor 26/8 anual también una vivienda tardía en el mandato de Thomas Dalton, chapman, en Croston , valor 9 / - anual - recuperación que tendrán John Watkynson y William Tarleton. Etc. Sellos.

ACUERDOS GENERALES, HIPOTECAS, etc.

ARCHIVO - CL 892 - fecha: 10 de enero de 1519/20

Acuerdo: Roger Dalton, esquier y William su hijo y heredero y Merget esposa de W., en relación con los acuerdos celebrados el 4 de mayo de 1500 entre Richard, padre de Roger, y el Sr. William Wall, párroco de Eccliston, ambos dic. y Ciertos pagos especificados que se realizarán a W. y M.

ARCHIVO - L 355 - fecha: 14 de diciembre de 1524

Contrato de arrendamiento por 61 años a una renta de pimienta por 2 años, luego alquiler por 13/4: por & # x00a33 y 26/8: Roger Dalton, esq., William su hijo y heredero y William Walles, caballero y James Delater, sacerdote, fideicomisarios de Richard, padre de RD, a Nicholas Mawdesley y Richard Nelson de M., - cerca de M. llamado Longshawe, al final del mandato de Cristopher Rutter y ahora de John Bane - Seals.

ARCHIVO - HE 11/65 - fecha: 6 de septiembre de 1525

Arrendamiento por 2 vidas a 6/4 alquiler: por 40 / -: Roger Dalton, squier, y William, su hijo y heredero, de Richard Hoghe de Croston, un contrato al final del mandato de Jenet Holme en el

ARCHIVO - HE 56/25 - fecha: 21 de marzo de 1530/1

Roger Dalton, esq., William, su hijo y heredero, Thurstan Sanderson, Robert Charlis y Thomas Stopforth, a John Watkynson de Rufforth, junio: & # x00a310: pagar 26/4 antes de las próximas Martinmas.

Court of Chancery: Six Clerks Office: Early Proceedings, Richard II to Philip and Mary

William, hijo y heredero de Roger Dalton y de Anne, su esposa, hija de Hugh Radcliff, caballero. v. Thomas Wentworth, escudero .: Detención de hechos relacionados con la mitad de la mansión de Wath .: York.

ARCHIVO - [sin título] - ref. DDB 10/12 - fecha: 2 de septiembre de 1501

Subvención: Richard Dalton, Roger su hijo y heredero, William Wall, secretario, y Sir Richard Shirburne, a Seth Wodecoke, secretario, Henry Faryngton, esq., Thomas hijo, heredero de William Lathome, y James Anderton - mitad de la mansión de Wath - mantener de por vida a Mary, esposa de Roger Dalton e hija de Sir William Faryngton.

ARCHIVO - [sin título] - ref. DDN 1/41 - fecha: 27 de marzo de 1500

Hipoteca: por & # x00a330. 13. 4: Thomas Hesketh, esq. Y Roger Dalton, esq. - propiedades en Croston & amp Mawdesley, fallecido de Margaret, esposa de Thomas Ashton, en la tenencia de Elis Scharpuls, Hugh Haresnape, Robert Jamisson, Robert Hogekinson, William Adamson, Richard Waterward, Gilbart Nelson, Cristor Rutter, Richard Nelson, Robert Waterward, Issabell Sonke, Charles Herrison, Robert Woddes, Ottwell Mawdesley, Robert Nicholasson, Henry Hanworth, Robert Mawdesley, Richard Ashton, Thomas Ashton e Issabell viuda de John Nelson y alquila de un cercano llamado Burscogh Feld y de tierras de William Brodehede y propiedades tardías en el mandato de William Holme, Thomas Farington y John Brethyrton también tierras pertenecientes a Flemynge Hall, con un acre de pradera en Old Mawdesley que perteneció a Thomas Dalton de Bispham de por vida. Sello.


Pantera II

El Panther II es un tanque sólido y capaz en las manos adecuadas, comprender que sus fortalezas y debilidades son la clave del éxito. El Panther II no es un luchador. Carece tanto de la velocidad como de la agilidad para hacerlo con mucho éxito. Sin embargo, puede ser un flanker muy exitoso, siempre y cuando elijas tus objetivos. El francotirador siempre es preferencial en el Panther II sobre el compromiso directo, pero no descarte por completo el desguace, el Panther II puede recibir algunos golpes decentes, pero solo arriesgarse si tiene apoyo. El Panther II funciona mejor en un paquete, como cualquier otro medio. Salir solo a menudo resultará en una ruina humeante.

Si es posible, intente solo exponer su torreta al enemigo. Como la mayoría de los tanques alemanes, la placa inferior del glacis es una gran debilidad, una que los oponentes inteligentes explotarán fácilmente si se les da la oportunidad. Los disparos a través del glacis inferior a menudo encontrarán su motor roto y, a menudo, prendido en llamas. También puede ser difícil jugar con el vehículo en pendientes, ya que falta la depresión del cañón.

El equipo imprescindible para este tanque es el Rammer del cañón del tanque y el Estabilizador vertical para reducir el tiempo de recarga y mejorar drásticamente el rendimiento del cañón. La tercera opción de equipo es preferencial, un Gun Laying Drive reducirá el tiempo de apuntar cuando se detiene y ayudará a disparar más rápidamente, la óptica recubierta aumenta el rango de visión en un 10% constantemente y los telescopios binoculares ayudarán a detectar muy bien incluso los tanques camuflados, pero solo cuando el tanque está estacionario. El estilo de juego determinará cuál de estos es el mejor para ti.

Aunque mal visto, el Panther II, a diferencia de su predecesor, pueden Juega un papel similar al de un peleador pesado, pero de una manera que lo distingue de casi cualquier otro tanque del juego. Usa la buena penetración de la pistola superior del Panther II a tu favor asesinando a oponentes desprevenidos y muy dañados, pesados, medios, de cualquier clase que sean. Aprender los puntos débiles de los tanques y dónde su arma puede penetrar su armadura solo mejorará esta habilidad. Equipar un pisón de cañón de tanque y una unidad de colocación de cañón mejorada aumenta aún más el peligro en el juego tardío en el que se convierte este tanque. El Panther II y los que lo siguen pueden convertirse en tanques de juego tardío extremadamente peligrosos en las manos adecuadas. Con una tripulación de élite, este tanque puede detectar más lejos, girar y apuntar más rápido, y con su alto DPM dispara a casi cualquier otro tanque en su nivel de clases. En esencia, este tanque puede convertirse engañosamente en un juego tardío "Medio-pesado" en áreas urbanas en particular. Elimina los tanques gravemente heridos, recorre calles y callejones, ponte a cubierto y burla a tus enemigos, mantente atento a los objetivos recién descubiertos y elimínalos lo más rápido que puedas y podrás girar por completo, si no. ayudar a cambiar el rumbo de una batalla. Este tipo de juego es muy viable en los partidos de nivel 8 y 9, pero es mejor que se familiarice con las capacidades de Panther II antes de intentar tal hazaña, y no se recomienda especialmente si ya ha sufrido daños graves.

Investigación temprana

Lo primero que se debe actualizar es la torreta, que brinda un rango de visión y blindaje adicionales y brinda más mejoras que la suspensión. Luego investigue la suspensión, para que luego pueda investigar y montar el L / 71 o L / 100. El motor no da una gran mejora a este medio pesado, así que investiga esto último.

Información histórica


En una reunión el 10 de febrero de 1943, se propusieron más cambios de diseño, incluidos cambios en los engranajes de dirección y mandos finales. Otra reunión el 17 de febrero de 1943 se centró en compartir y estandarizar partes entre el tanque Tiger II y el Panther 2, como la transmisión, las ruedas de carretera de acero y el tren de rodaje. No se hicieron planes para incluir el 8,8 cm L / 71 ya que el diámetro de la torreta era demasiado pequeño. En marzo de 1943, MAN indicó que el primer prototipo estaría terminado en agosto de 1943. Se estaban considerando varios motores, entre ellos el nuevo motor de inyección de combustible Maybach HL 234 (900 hp accionado por una transmisión hidráulica de 8 velocidades).


Por lo tanto, los planes para reemplazar el diseño original de Panther con el Panther II ya estaban en marcha antes de que el primer Panther incluso hubiera visto combate. Pero, de mayo a junio de 1943, cesó el trabajo en el Panther II, ya que el enfoque se cambió a la expansión de la producción del tanque Panther original. It is not clear if there was ever an official cancellation this may have been because the Panther II upgrade path was originally started at Hitler's insistence. The direction that the design was headed would not have been consistent with Germany's need for a mass-produced tank, which was the goal of the Reich Ministry of Armament and War Production. Additionally, many of the problems the Panther II was made to address had been resolved, such as the weak side armor.


Whitewashing the Black Panthers

A new PBS documentary tries to excuse a murderous and totalitarian cult.

Michael Moynihan

Alamy

When his captors uncinched the noose around his neck and shoved him into a wooden chair, Alex Rackley might have assumed his ordeal was over. He had already endured a flurry of kicks and punches, the repeated crack of a wooden truncheon, ritual humiliation, and a mock lynching. But it wasn’t over. It was about to get much, much worse.

Rackley, a slight, 19-year-old black kid from Florida, was tough (he had a black belt in karate), but hardly in a position to resist his psychopathic interrogators. During a previous beating he had gamely tried, kicking and flailing and swinging his arms. But this time he was tied to the chair, with a towel stuffed in his mouth to mute the screams. The women upstairs were tending to the children while assiduously preparing pots of boiling water—because traditional gender roles applied in the torture business, too.

When the bubbling cauldrons were brought to the basement—four or five of them—they were thrown over Rackley’s naked body. Then they worked him over some more. With him burned, battered, and bloodied, the towel was removed from his mouth. As a warning to those who would sell out the party to the Feds (“jackanapes,” “pigs,” and “faggots,” in the party’s nomenclature), the Lubyanka-style proceedings would be recorded on half-inch tape.

The interrogation begins with a woman’s voice: Brother Alex from New York was sleeping in the office…And I kicked him and said, “Motherfucker, wake up!” A few minutes pass, instinct kicks in, and Rackley tries to free himself. Sit down, motherfucker. Be still. The woman coolly and dispassionately reads the details of the previous interrogation session into the record: So then we began to realize how phony he was and that he was either an extreme fool or a pig, so we began to ask questions with a little force and the answers came out after a few buckets of hot water…then the brother got some discipline in the areas of the nose and mouth.

He wasn’t working for the Feds, but Rackley confessed to being a rat anyway. Why bother denying the “charges”? Every denial resulted in a new acts of barbarism anyway. Maybe this way he would be expelled from the party, but allowed to survive.

Ericka Huggins, George Sams, Warren Kimbro, and the other members of the New Haven Black Panther Party present in the house on May 18, 1969 had gotten what they wanted. So Rackley was carried from the basement and deposited into a bedroom usually occupied by a 7-year-old girl. Someone tied him to the child’s bed. Three days later, covered in his own shit and piss, Rackley was cleaned up by one of the Panther women and hustled out of the house into an idling car: He would be driven to a boat, they said, and brought either to New York or home to his native Florida.

With his arms again bound and a fresh noose around his neck—this one fashioned from a wire coat hanger—Alex Rackley, an illiterate teenager who had joined the Black Panther Party eight months earlier, was led to the edge of the Coginchaug River in Middlefield, Connecticut.

Of course, there was no boat. And there was no escape. “Orders from national [headquarters],” said George Sams, the bloodthirsty ringleader of the hit squad. “Ice him.”

Warren Kimbro, a Black Panther party cadre from the New Haven branch, put the first bullet in Rackley’s head, collapsing him in the shallow water. As his body heaved, another Panther foot soldier, Lonnie McLucas, took the gun from Kimbro and fired a bullet into his chest, just in case. They didn’t bother checking, but Alex Rackley was still alive, gasping and in pain, one expert later speculated, for almost four hours.

According to George Sams, he was merely following orders issued by Bobby Seale, the Black Panther Party’s infamous co-founder and “chairman.” Not long after Rackley’s waterlogged corpse was fished out of the water, Sams, Kimbro, and McLucas were all behind bars, awaiting trial on murder charges.

And Ericka Huggins—that cruel voice on the tape interrogating Rackley mocking him for crying watching while he was beaten telling the motherfucker to sit down during the torture session witnessing him frog-marched out of the house with a noose around his neck, no shoes, and flanked by three armed men—would also stand trial, accused of orchestrating the killing with Seale.**

When the theater lights dim and the PBS logo dissolves, a disembodied voice tells a parable of three blind men running their hands over the body of an elephant. They all describe something different: it feels like a wall, or a spear, or possibly a snake. “And that is quite often what happens with our descriptions of the Black Panther Party. We know the party we were in and not the entire thing.”

The first voice in Stanley Nelson’s documentary The Black Panthers: Vanguard of the Revolution, is mellifluous and childlike, not as sharp and hateful as it was on that 1969 tape. But here is Ericka Huggins, along with more than a dozen of her former comrades, educating viewers about the Black Panther Party’s (BPP) accomplishments, miraculously achieved in the face of interminable harassment from the FBI and police. With an assist from PBS, who will broadcast the documentary in September, Nelson has recruited a cast of shriveled militants for his one-dimensional Panther festschrift —a film that doesn’t disturb the ghost of Alex Rackley or the many other victims of the party’s revenge killings, punishment beatings, purges, or “disappearances.”

Like many former members of the party elite, these days Ericka Huggins interrogates students about race, class, and gender in her job as a college professor, having long-since lost interest in brutally interrogating suspected FBI informants.

From Huggins, we are shunted along to the second witness—another Panther turned college professor. “Now [in the late 1960s] we had the emergence of voices within the community who said ‘We’re not going to continue to turn the other cheek,’” says Jamal Joseph, who teaches film at Columbia University. Joseph features heavily in the Vanguard of the Revolution, fulfilling the role of the handsome, clever, naive teenage Panther railroaded by the pigs for his membership in a renegade political party.

But as with Ericka Huggins, there is much about Joseph that viewers aren’t told. The most important piece of neglected information is this: When the Panthers were a spent political force, Joseph joined up with the spinoff Black Guerrilla Army and was sentenced to 12½ years in prison for his part in the infamous 1981 Brinks armored car robbery, which resulted in the death of three innocents, including Waverly Brown, the first African-American to serve on the Nyack, New York, police force.

Joseph wasn’t sentenced for his participation in the robbery—his conviction was for harboring fugitives, provoking the exasperated judge to declare “I have never understood juries”—though countless accounts of the murders finger him as both a key player and an armed participant. In his new book Days of Rage, Vanity Fair journalist Bryan Burrough says the Brinks job was “laboriously scouted by” Joseph. A long out-of-print account of the murders by journalist John Castellucci meticulously catalogues Joseph’s involvement and fingers him as one of the six armed men lurking behind ski masks that fateful day. Journalist Susan Braudy’s Pulitzer-nominated book Family Circle: The Boudins and the Aristocracy of the Left places Joseph at the scene of the robbery. But Joseph’s very long rap sheet (more on that later) is never mentioned by Nelson.

This is, perhaps, unsurprising. In front of a sold-out crowd of geriatric radicals and their dippy young acolytes, Nelson matter-of-factly acknowledged that Vanguard of the Revolution is a “pro-Panther” film and expressed surprise that at previous screenings “no one stood up and said, ‘How could you say these good things about the Panthers,’ which we thought would happen.’”

Someone should. Because almost anything that reflects poorly on the Panthers is ignored or dismissed and no critics of the party are included. The story is told entirely through the testimony of former Panthers and sympathetic historians, with the occasional appearance of a porcine ex-cop, at whom the audience is supposed to hiss. When a former FBI agent weighs in, it’s G-man turned radical activist M. Wesley Swearingen, whose book FBI Secrets comes with a fulsome introduction by disgraced academic and noted crackpot Ward Churchill. He exists in Vanguard of the Revolution to echo the Panther narrative. (Swearingen’s latest book is a self-published mélange of Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories fingering “Cuban exiles, [the] Chicago mafia, and bad cops trained by the CIA” in the president’s murder).

We don’t lack for Panther hagiographies—histories, memoirs, feature films, and documentaries (often broadcast on PBS, like A Huey P. Newton Story Passin’ It On: The Black Panthers’ Search for Justice A Panther in Africa y The Black Power Mixtape, 1967-1975). And most of them are correct on a few important questions. As Nelson points out, it’s indeed correct to say that Chicago Panther leader Fred Hampton era murdered by the police. The Oakland police force era full of rotten thugs and racists. Teenage Panther Bobby Hutton era shot while trying to surrender (though in a gun battle precipitated by a Panthers ambush). The Feds fueron engaged in illegal activity in their war against the Panthers.

But as writer Steve Wasserman recently noted in La Nación, the Panthers’ many hagiographers have often “refused to acknowledge the party’s crimes and misdemeanors, preferring to attribute its demise almost entirely to the machinations of others.” (A reviewer at La raíz says Nelson documents the party’s “demise at the hands of the FBI,” an impression one might reasonably get from watching Vanguard of the Revolution.)

Vanguard of the Revolution is a lumbering two-hour film, and while Nelson offers a playful précis on the sexy proto-Ramones style of the Panthers—leavened with archival footage of attractive party activists of both genders in knee-high black boots, crisp black leather jackets, black berets, and black sunglasses—you’ll find almost no discussion of more important issues, like what the Panther’s actually believed.

Because beyond the mindless “power to the people” platitudes, the Panthers were ideological fanatics. After all, the party was guided, the Black Panther newspaper exclaimed, by “the revolutionary works of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin, Chairman Mao, Comrades Kim Il Sung, Ho Chi Minh, Che Guevara, Malcolm X, and other great leaders of the worldwide people’s struggle for liberation.”

It was in the newspaper where “everything came together,” says Ericka Huggins in Vanguard of the Revolution. “It explained who we were, what we were about, what our goals were.” She’s right. If you want to get a sense of the party, one need only thumb through a few back issues of The Black Panther newspaper, scanning editorials signed by “we black revolutionaries who are fighting this racist imperialist faggot honkey,” gasping at the countless images of North Korean dictator Kim Il-Sung and Chinese genocidaire Mao Tse-Tung, or scratching your head at the paeans to demented Albanian Stalinist Enver Hoxha.

So I shouldn’t have been surprised to find that The Black Panther was actually full of glowing references to Josef Stalin. Eldridge Cleaver (“And I’d also like to quote Stalin…”), Panther “chief of staff” David Hilliard (“We think that Stalin was very clear in this concept…”), and Bobby Seale (“Joseph Stalin said one time that our best weapon…”) were all fond of citing him. And Seale was complimenting his comrades when he observed that “our party can see Lenin and Stalin when we want to understand Huey and Eldridge.” Hilliard kept a photo of Stalin on display in his office, believing that tales of Stalinist mass murder were bourgeois propaganda. “The reason that they fear Joseph Stalin is because of the distorted facts that they have gained through the Western press,” he told an interviewer. Chairman Elaine Brown clarified that the Black Panther Party was “not opposed to Stalin.”

Again, none of this mentioned by Nelson. Nor is the group’s frightening obsession with North Korea’s uniquely demented brand of Stalinism (“The Korean people and their great leader Comrade Kim II Sung” are “a nation of Newtons, tough brothers, off the block who once built a mountainous barbecue which imperialism called Heartbreak Ridge!”). Interviewee Kathleen Cleaver isn’t asked by Nelson about her pilgrimages to Pyongyang, or why she chose to give birth to her daughter Joju Younghi—a name chosen for her by Kim Il-Sung’s wife—in North Korea. Nor is she asked about credible accusations that when Eldridge Cleaver returned from his first trip to North Korea he shot and killed a Panther he believed to be Kathleen’s lover (When asked, Eldridge wouldn’t deny killing his romantic rival and in 2001 former Panther fugitive and Cleaver confidante Byron Vaughn Booth confessed to having witnessed the murder.)

When inconvenient party members weren’t being physically eliminated, The Black Panther newspaper was denouncing errant comrades for ideological deviationism. One particularly jarring example, found in a 1970 edition of paper, was the purging of Verlina (Donnetta) Brewer, one of the Panthers wounded when the Chicago police sprayed Fred Hampton’s apartment with bullets. She was expelled from the party for having had an abortion. The communique from headquarters was blunt: “As of April 25, 1970, Donnetta Brewer is no longer [a party member] in good standing…She has been purged.” (When I tracked down Brewer, she said she was unaware of the article and claimed to have been "taken advantage of by a party member," cryptically speculating that the story was “written to cover up what was done to me.”)

What few histories of the BPP dwell upon—and, of course, Vanguard of the Revolution doesn’t address—is not only the party’s rampant sexism but its deeply conservative gender politics. The Panther newspaper opposed the liberalization of abortion laws because it would be “a victory for the oppressive ruling class who will use [abortion] to kill off Black and other oppressed people before they are born.” The birth control pill was deemed “another type of genocide that the power structure has poured into the Black community.”

During a Q&A following the screening of Vanguard of the Revolution at the Human Rights Watch film festival in New York, Nelson and Jamal Joseph recast the patriarchal Panthers as flawed proto-feminists icons, unfortunately saddled with a streak of au courant “chauvinism.” And Joseph recently claimed, somewhat confusingly, that the BPP actually “took on” sexism and “wrapped it in something called love.”

But unbeknownst to viewers of Vanguard of the Revolution—and as Los New York Times reported during his 1981 murder trial—Joseph’s lawyer once acknowledged that his client was a revolutionary who also “operated ‘an escort service’” on the side. Journalist John Castellucci reported that at the time of the Brinks murders, Joseph the feminist “had a few girls” working for him, “all in their teens, and [he] ran ads for them in sex-oriented tabloids under the name Jay Daniels.”

But apparently neither Joseph nor Nelson remember that one Black Panther Party founder (Bobby Seale) penned a memoir featuring a multi-page boast of bedding five supplicant Panther women in one night. Or that another BPP big shot (Eldridge Cleaver) was a confessed rapist who described his violent sexual assaults as “insurrectionary acts.” Or that the party’s other founder and intellectual heavyweight (Huey Newton) frequently physically abused women and in 1974 was charged with murdering a teenage prostitute who had “disrespected” him.

Indeed, Huey Newton’s increasingly erratic behavior gets only a perfunctory mention in Vanguard of the Revolution and skips over the gory details. The factionalism Newton provoked resulted in a bloody party split (which Nelson ludicrously blames on the FBI) creating two warring factions: one loyal to Newton and one to Eldridge Cleaver. It was at this point in the party’s history, Jamal Joseph explains, that many party members either went “underground” or walked away from the movement. The party split is illustrated by Nelson with a few newspaper headlines crawling across the screen, but no further detail is provided.

One of those newspaper clippings references the murder of Sam Napier, the well-liked, Newton-loyal distribution manager of the party newspaper, murdered in 1973 by Panthers aligned with the Cleaver faction. In their aggressively pro-Panther history Black Against Empire, academics Joshua Bloom and Waldo Martin describe how the “assailants shot Napier three times in the back, tied him to a bed. gagged him, shot him three times in the head, and then set the building on fire.” (In fact, they also tortured Napier, pouring boiling water over his body, before shooting him multiple times, dousing him with lighter fluid, and setting his broken body on fire).

Black Panther Party confidant and fundraiser Marty Kenner called the murder of Napier “unspeakably brutal,” noting that “the assassins grabbed the two-year-old child that Sam was taking care of in the office and literally threw him out the door, giving him lasting injuries.” There were other children in the office too their mouths were taped and they were made to lie on the floor, though later released.

One of those tried in connection with the killing? Columbia University professor Jamal Joseph. After an initial trial resulted in a hung jury, Joseph and three others pleaded guilty to the reduced charge of attempted manslaughter. Los New York Times headline was succinct: “4 Panthers Admit Guilt in Slaying.” Again, there is no mention of the Napier slaying in Vanguard of the Revolution (nor in Joseph’s memoir Panther Baby).

Joseph isn’t the only Nelson interview subject whose violent past is left unmentioned. Vanguard of the Revolution includes testimony from former Panther enforcer Landon Williams, prosecuted for his involvement in the murder of Alex Rackley. At the trial, Panther triggerman Warren Kimbro recounted on the stand the moment when “Landon said, ‘Take [Rackley] out and take care of him.’” Williams pleaded guilty to the charge of conspiracy to murder.

And there is former Panther and current Columbia University administrator Flores Forbes, who mistakenly shot and killed a fellow Panther during an attempt to assassinate Crystal Gray, a witness willing to testify against Huey Newton in the murder of 17-year-old prostitute Kathleen Smith who made the mistake of calling Newton “baby.” Around the same time, Newton’s tailor Preston Callins also made the mistake of calling him “baby.” As punishment, Callins was brutally pistol-whipped and tortured by Newton. Again, none of this is mentioned in Vanguard of the Revolution.

Nelson has made a stylistically interesting documentary, but has revealed himself to be an astonishingly bad journalist. Because a good journalist would have forced Joseph, Huggins, Forbes, and Williams to confront their own pasts and the Panther’s violent legacy, while steering them away from rote banalities accusing the FBI of provoking their murderousness. A good journalist would have brought in voices critical of the party from other expanses of the civil rights movement (like the late Bayard Rustin). A good journalist might look at the actuarial table for Panther members and wonder why more Panthers were killed by fellow black nationalists than by the pigs.

Because the murder of Alex Rackley wasn’t an aberration. And while the Feds undoubtedly abused their power in pursuit of the Panthers, their obsession with violent black nationalism wasn’t irrational. Too bad PBS viewers won’t understand why the “Gestapo pigs,” the shock troops of “fascist Amerikkka,” were so interested in disrupting the revolution Huggins, Seale, Cleaver, and Newton tried so desperately to foment.

** I pulled information on the Alex Rackley murder from a number of contemporaneous sources, but the text upon which I relied most for detail and chronology was Paul Bass and Doug Rae's spectacular book about the New Haven Panther trial, Murder in the Model City: The Black Panthers, Yale, and the Redemption of a Killer.


Panther: Probably the best German tank design of WWII?

The Panther was not as thickly armoured, nor as heavily armed, as tanks such as the Tiger but was probably a much more balanced design. It was one of the fastest German tanks, highly manoeuvrable and equipped with an accurate gun. Its worst defect was a propensity to catch fire if the engine backfired.

The Model G was the last main production variant of Panther and our exhibit was one of a group built, under British control, at the end of the war. These were tested in Britain and Germany and may have contributed to the design of the British Centurion.

This Panther was found partly completed on the production lines after the German surrender and was finished by REME troops. It has features characteristic of the Ausf G, including increased armour, a one-piece side plate and hinged hatches in the hull.

The camouflage scheme issimilar to that used on Panthers leaving the factory in the last months of the war. A basic undercoat of red with other colours rapidly applied. It was seen on Panthers of 5th Battalion, 25th Panzer Grenadier Division on the Eastern Front in February 1945.

Precise Name: Panzerkampfwagen V Aus G

Other Name: SdKfz 171, VK3002, Panther I, Pz Kpfw Panther (Aus G)

DESCRIPTION

The Panzerkampfwagen V or Panther was the best German tank of World War II and possibly the best medium tank fielded by any of the combatants in World War II. The other contender for the accolade of best tank is the Soviet T34, earlier versions of which inspired some aspects of the design of the Panther.

The Soviet T34/76 and KV tanks were a complete surprise to the Germans when they encountered them in July 1941 during the invasion of the Soviet Union. They were superior to any tanks that the Germans had in service and the German troops were soon demanding a new tank to counter them.

A special Panzer Commission was sent to the eastern front in November 1941 to gather information. After the Commission reported Daimler Benz and MAN were asked to design a new medium tank. MAN eventually won the design competition and the first prototype appeared in September 1942. Hitler decreed that the new tank, named Panther, had to be ready for service by the end of May 1943 so that it could participate in the offensive against the Soviet Army planned for the summer of 1943, Operation Zitadelle. As a result its’ development was rushed and the first production version, the Ausfuhrung D, suffered from many teething problems. These included failures of the wheel rims, problems with the transmission and a tendency for the engine to catch fire.

The Panther Aus D made its’ combat debut at the Battle of Kursk in July 1943, the largest tank battle in history. Many early model Panthers were lost because of mechanical failure rather than by enemy action.

The Panther hull was welded and had sloping, thick, armour. The upper part of the hull front was 6cms thick, the turret front 8cms thick. This armour was capable of resisting the projectiles fired by most allied tank guns when it entered service. The hull was carried on eight pairs of large road wheels on each side, attached to torsion bars and riding on broad tracks like the T34. The transmission and drive sprockets were at the front of the hull and the Maybach petrol engine was in the rear.

The Panther mounted a long, high velocity, accurate 7.5cm gun, the KwK42. This gun was 70 calibres long and had a muzzle velocity of 1,120 metres/sec. It could penetrate 14.9cm of armour plate sloping at 30 degrees at a range of 1,000 metres. The front armour of the principle United States tank of this period, the Sherman, (see E1955. 32) was just over 5cms thick the Soviet T34/76 had 4.5cms on the hull front and 6.5cms on the turret front (see E1952.44). The gun was complemented by excellent optics.

Eight hundred and fifty Panther Aus D were produced before an improved tank, confusingly called the Aus A, superseded it in September 1943! The Aus A had an extensively modified turret with a cast commander’s cupola, a ball mount for the bow machine gun in place of a letter box flap and many changes to improve reliability. The Aus A became the main combat tank of the Wehrmacht and 2,000 were built between August 1943 and May 1944. They served on the Eastern front, in Italy and in Normandy following the Anglo American invasion in June 1944.

The Panther Aus A was in turn replaced by the Panther Aus G in the spring of 1944, (the Aus F was a projected model that never entered production). The Aus G had further changes to improve reliability, thicker armour, a simplified hull structure and a modified gun mantlet that was intended to eliminate a shot trap. It was the last production variant and 3,126 were made by MAN, Daimler Benz and MNH between March 1944 and April 1945, bringing total production of Panther gun tanks to 5,976 vehicles. The Panther Aus G was the first tank to use infrared night vision aids in combat, albeit on a small scale. The commander’s cupola was fitted with an infrared sight while illumination was provided by an infrared search light mounted on a special version of the SdKfz 251 half track, called the Uhu (Owl).

The Panther Aus B and C were ‘paper’ projects that were never built, while only prototypes were made of the Aus F.

The Tank Museum’s Panther is a rather unusual Aus G unusual because it is one of a small batch completed in the MNH factory by British REME troops for the British Army immediately after the end of the war in Europe. These were extensively tested in Britain and Germany. The results of the trials may have influenced the development of the British Centurion tank.


A Look Inside The Most Feared Tank Of WWII, The Panther

The German Panther tank was deployed during the Second World War in the European Theater, between the years 1943 and 1945. It saw action on both the Eastern and Western fronts, and is widely hailed as one of the best tanks designed and produced during the conflict.

The Panther was the third most-produced German armored fighting vehicle, after the Sturmgeschütz III assault gun/tank destroyer at 9,408 units, and the Panzer IV tank at 8,298 units.

They proved to be extremely popular, and as a result more than 6000 Panthers were built for the German military. More surprisingly, however, is the fact that nine of these tanks were built by the British Army between 1945 and 1946. This alone is a testament to the high quality of these remarkable war machines.

There were three main version of the Panther – versions D, A and G – with each new version incorporating significant improvements. There were also the artillery spotter, recovery, and Commander versions.

The full name was the Panzerkampfwagen V Panther and it had the ordnance inventory designation of Sd.Kfz. 171. However, on 27 February 1944, Hitler ordered that the Roman numeral “V” be deleted from the designation.

This wan’t the only way in which Hitler was directly involved with the tank’s design. The Panther was originally meant to weigh 30 tons, but the Nazi Leader demanded extra armor and a heavier gun and so it ended up weighing almost 50 tons.

Panther tanks of the Großdeutschland Division advance in the area of Iaşi, Romania in 1944 .Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 2.0

Hitler later ordered a Panther II which would feature more armor while still maintaining the same gun, one prototype of which prototype was captured by the Americans. The project was quietly cancelled in mid-1943.

Although weighing a great deal, they could still move at a considerable pace. The later models had a top speed of 46km/h, roughly as fast as the Tiger and slightly faster than the Sherman tank.

These powerful tanks could be used to devastating effect on the battlefield. One of the top German Panther commanders was SS-Oberscharführer Ernst Barkmann of the 2nd SS-Panzer Regiment “Das Reich”. By the end of the war, he had some 80 tank kills claimed.

The Panther tank uses an engine very similar to the one used in the Tiger Tank, with an average life of 1500 hours. The Panther tank came into service after the Tiger tank, the Panther being first used in combat in July 1943 in Kursk whereas the Tiger was first used in Leningrad in December 1942.

Panther tank with bush camouflage in Northern France, 1944. Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 2.0

Panther tanks were captured on certain occasions and put to use by Germany’s enemies. At least two Panthers were commandeered by the Polish resistance in the early days of the Warshaw uprising, although they were immobilized after several days due to lack of fuel, and were then set on fire.

Russian troops also captured several Panthers, turning them against the Nazis along the Eastern Front. They abandoned them once the tanks broke down, however, as they were deemed too complicated and too difficult to repair.

The Panther had a 7.5 cm main gun that could carry 40 rounds of anti-tank ammo and 39 high explosive shells. It also had two MG 34 machine guns with 5100 rounds of ammunition. The tank needed a crew of at least five men, including a commander, driver, gunner, loader, radioman and machine gunner.

A Panther crew. Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 2.0

The Panthers saw a great deal of action during their years in service. At their peak in September 1944 there were 552 Panthers operational on the Eastern Front, out of a total of 728. Later, during the Battle of the Bulge, the Germans used 400 Panther Tanks, five of which were disguised to look like American M10 Tank Destroyers. They did this by welding on additional plates and applying US-style camouflage paint and markings.

There are thought to be five surviving Panthers in running order, two of which were built by the British Army. There are a lot more non-runner Panthers out there in museums, as monuments or in the hands of private collectors.

The last operational report dated March 15, 1945, lists 361 operational out of 740 Panther tanks.

In this video, Nicolas Moran talks about the Panther, particularly about the cupola and the gunner’s position.


Experience as X-Factor

Sherman tank crews’ last great advantage was in experience, even though Germany had been at war six years before most of the American tankers invaded France. In early August, Adolf Hitler ordered that all new Panthers sent to the West would go to new armored formations rather than depleted divisions. Thus, Germany’s veteran tankers received lighter Mark IVs, while new, inexperienced crews got the better tanks. So whenever Americans faced off against the Panther, they were usually more skilled in the tactics of close combat.

Two Panthers take up a battle line in a farmer’s field near Ravenna, east of Bologna.

Despite their advantages against the Panther, American tankers knew their Shermans were no match for the Wehrmacht’s main battle tank thus, the Sherman’s nickname in Western Europe was the “Death Trap.”

Comentarios

First and foremost that ” death trap” LIE was passed along by Belton Cooper- a nitwit who never actually faced combat but was a rear area supply officer.

The Sherman crew survival rate was higher than the Panzer IV and Panther tank crews( easier to escape)

Also ever here of the battle of Arracourt? US tankers blasted apart 88 german Panzer IVs, StuGs and supposedly superior Panthers for the loss of 25 Shermans. The majority of the tanks on that battle on the Us side were Sherman’s armed with 75mm cannon, some 76.2mm Sherman’s and a few 76.2 km hellcats and M10 tank destroyers with 3″( 76 mm) guns.

While the panthers 75mm HV cannon was potent, late 1944 their armor quality was questionable due to short cuts and manufacturing losses. When the Shermans had proper AP rounds they didnt have to fear the Panther or even the lesser available tiger and king tiger.( a platoon of 75mm armed Sherman’s ganged up on a Tiger II in the village of LeGlaize, Belgium and literally BEAT THE DOG CRAP out , mobility killing it and causing the wounded crew to flee!

There are plenty of after action reports with 75mm Sherman’s mobility killing german Panthers, and 76mm armed ones ” pinning” Panthers at 800-1000m .

Most US and UK and Canadian Sherman’s got ” killed” cause they used poor tactics,often getting AMBUSHED like in the hedgerow areas of Normandy .

Although there were at least a dozen german tank “aces”, when the US/ UK and Russians (Soviets) stopped bullrushing through combat zones with their tanks and actually started using BETTER tactics, German tanks STOPPED being so feared ( Russians used better AP ammo in their lend lease shermans like they did in their T-34s and got more kills, causing the germans to run!)

In fact 3/4 of allied armor kills by the german forces were done wiith anti tank cannon crews, not actual german tanks!

Please stop repeating ” sherman tanks were inferior” fairy tale- the Sherman’s were far more reliable, had better trained crews, better supply lines, and simply OVERRAN the germans ( who throughout the war still used horse drawn wagons like they did in the franco-prussian war to move supplies about!)

Actualy Arracourt is proof of the opposite, despite inexperienced german crews that bungled into the american lines, american tankers regularly had to hit the german tanks 5-6 times before knocking them out. The battle was a disaster for the germans but the survivability alone of their tanks on the battlefield was quite good. I dont get why people get so worked over who had the best tanks, WW2 proved that the war could not be won single-handedly by any one arm of the military, it didnt really matter if you only had slightly better armored vehicles.

All these comparisons are done on the assumption that tanks are engaged exclusively in tank on tank warfare. In that case the higher penetration of German tank guns over the 75mm Sherman is a real advantage. However when reading the actual results of engagements of the Canadian 2nd Armoured brigade against the Mark 4 and Panther tanks of the 12 SS in early June 44, the outcomes were more or less a trade off with no evidence of German tank superiority based on outcomes. Later engagements south of Caen against mainly panthers were the same. When all the advantages and disadvantages of both sets of tanks were factored in, the Germans did not have any real advantage, as the other factors offset the advantage of a more powerful gun (17 pounder Firefly excepted).

If you want to do the comparison on the basis of Infantry support, the main role of Canadian Shermans, the Sherman wins hands down over the Panzers as it had the most powerful high explosive ammo of any tank in Normandy and that is what you need to engage infantry in strong points, buildings etc. and any towed AT or artillery gun, or vehicle that is not a tank. If the Sherman had a higher velocity gun and a weak high explosive round, the allies would have taken much higher infantry casualties and more battles would have ended with the German infantry repulsing the attackers.

The only decent Sherman was the British Firefly, it killed Tigers at a 1,000 yards, Panthers were easy meet for the British 17 Pounder.

According to British historian Sir Max Hastings, “no single Allied failure had more important consequences on the European battlefield than the lack of tanks with adequate punch and protection.” The Sherman, he added, was one of the Allies’ “greatest failures.”

I did a quick Google search and did not find the credentials of a Mark Feener but quite easily found the credentials of Sir Max Hastings – certainly no ‘nitwit’ and Cooper wasn’t either, might want to pay attention to those who actually saw the damage these tanks and crews suffered.

Max Hastings is a journalist, not a military historian, and is widely regarded as being at least 30 years out of date in his work. He is also credited as being the original “Wehraboo” and wildly biased in favour of the Germans. Please pick up works by professional military historians such as Peter Caddick-Adams or John Buckley, who are both professors in their own field. Not journalists.

Belton Coopers book is a personal anecdote not a scholarly work and has been widely discredited due to the huge number of inaccuracies and just plain falsehoods throughout.

The main pourpose of the tank concept is to SUPPORT INFANTRY not engage tanks. Yea they did but most tank battalions left the tank combat to the tank destroyers who with 3 inch guns made easy work of german tanks. People bash the sherman because it was “inferior in the face of german tanks” well they were, only to the big cats though. The 75 sherman could easily take care of the panzer 3s and 4s it came across 80 percent of the time. But in its role its supposed to be in which is an infantry support vehicle it performed very well. German AT crews with the long 88 and the short 88 could easily front penetrate the sherman but as soon as they do they are immediently fired upon by 4 other Sherman’s (American tank battalions consisted of 5 tanks) with 50cals and HE rounds. Yea tell me those guns will survive because they wont. And not to mention 3-4 crew will get out due to easy escape hatches. The only ones who will die would be the crew directly in the way of the penetrating shot. So in conclusion the sherman was NOT a bad tank in the role it was designed for, it may have suffered against panthers and tigers but only because it wasn’t meant to fight them. That’s the m 10s, m 18s, and m 36s, job these TDs could make quick work of hand and his crew if they came across them.

What’s the point of trying to make quick work of Hans and his crew using moronic field tactics like was common for western allied troops. Unfortunately for John, Hans had fought on the eastern front against Ivan two tours of duty before John was eventually hauled into Normandy. John wasn’t a soldier, he was a civilian drafted into the army and got made quick work of himself in most cases. By the end of the Normandy campaign, despite huge overweight in air support, artillery, supply chain and unlimited reserves the allied had a staggering 100% casualty rate across its frontline divisions. Germany equally suffered a staggering loss of life, but with only a single replacement for every fifteen casualties they simply lost a battle of attrition, rather than having been defeated by ability.

Only a team of 5 Sherman’s can outrun and defat a panzer cause 2 can damage but 5 can defeat.

Interestingly enough most American TD’s were M10’s with the 3″ gun, or M18’s with the 76mm gun which fired the same round as the 3″ with similar ballistics (just a separate case. By Arracourt, some 76mm Sherman’s were coming into use, more by the Bulge, including the M4A3 (76mm) HVSS.
76mm Sherman’s were just as capable of taking out Panthers as TD’s, with only the 90mm M36 Gun Motor Carriage being better in the U.S. inventory until the T26E6 Pershing came along.

The big difference was the TD units were more extensively trained to fight tanks.
Ironically, when there were shortages of TD’s some TD units were issued 76mm Sherman’s as replacements. The 76mm Sherman proved to have adequate mobility to hang with the M18 Hellcats, and the same firepower. The Sherman had better protection than the Hellcat, and an armored roof. There was nothing an M10 could do a 76mm Sherman couldn’t either.
The TD’s did an excellent job with what they were given to work with. But ironically, those same men could have been integrated into tank units with 76mm Sherman’s, given similar training, and done the same job.
The German tanks were tough, but there were never enough, their reliability issues kept them out of battles where they were needed, high fuel consumption often meant they retired early before battles were over. The best tank in the world is of no use if it’s not their when you need it.

No, on paper the Sherman was not equal to bigger German tanks. But the honest truth is a properly crewed and handled 76mm Sherman could, and frequently did, deal adequately with Tiger’s or Panther’s. And it was a match or better for Stug’s or MkVI’s that it more typically encountered. And there were plenty of them.

“One reason … George S. Patton … believed his armored corps would beat the Germans was not necessarily the superiority of the Sherman (though underrated in truth) or the M-1, but because American men loved machines, knew how to fix them… A Tiger or Panther might blow apart a Sherman, but not when there were 10 expertly maintained Shermans cruising through France for every unreliable or out-of-commission Panther and Tiger, whose engines and transmissions needed experts to repair or replace.”


Ver el vídeo: Wunderwaffe. Panther II History, Tactics u0026 Gameplay. War Thunder ABRB (Enero 2022).